IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Relationships between water pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) and indicators of economic level, water supply and sanitation in developing countries

  • Tsuzuki, Yoshiaki
Registered author(s):

    Water pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) as indicators to evaluate quantitatively domestic wastewater pollutant discharges to the ambient water were applied to eight international coastal zones and lakeside regions. Statistical analyses were conducted to find the relationships between PDCs and water, sanitation and economic parameters including purchase power parity based gross national income (PPP-GNI) per capita, proportions of access to safe drinking water and appropriate sanitation, domestic water usage amount, and integrated parameters of water, sanitation and economic indicators (WSEI1, 2). Two of the important findings from the regression analyses results were PDC-BOD correlated with PPP-GNI per capita with 3rd-order regression, and PDC-TP correlated with WSEI1 positively with 10% significance, besides smaller adjusted regression coefficients. t-values of partial regression coefficients between PDC-TP and WSEI2 increased in the most analyses cases compared to those between PDC-TP and WSEI1, which showed improvement of the indices. Empirical estimations were also conducted based on the regression analyses results and distributions of PDCs and PPP-GNI per capita on the graphs. Six components generated by the principle component analysis (PCA) contributed 99% of the parameters. The first component represented access to sanitation, second one represented household connection of safe drinking water, third one represented areal equipment of water supply in urban area, fourth one represented domestic water usage amount, fifth one represented areal equipment of water supply, and sixth one represented income per capita and sanitation. Although some statistically significances of the multiple linear regression analysis were observed, the relationships between PDCs and the water supply parameters were considered as complicated in regards to areal equipment and household connection, and in whole country and in urban area. Possible chronological relationships between PDC-BOD and water supply equipment were considered based on the results of the multiple linear regression analyses and PCA. Based on the considerations of the water pollutant discharges and the economic related parameters relationships, domestic wastewater treatment facility deployments and improvements on pollutant discharges reduction for the water quality improvement in the receiving water bodies were recommended, which would lead the relationship curves between the water, sanitation and economic related indicators and PDCs to move downward.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Ecological Economics.

    Volume (Year): 68 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 1-2 (December)
    Pages: 273-287

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:68:y:2008:i:1-2:p:273-287
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Junyi Shen & Yoshizo Hashimoto, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve on Country Level: Evidence from China," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 04-09, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
    2. Chimeli, Ariaster B. & Braden, John B., 2005. "Total factor productivity and the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 366-380, March.
    3. Chimeli, Ariaster B., 2007. "Growth and the environment: Are we looking at the right data?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 89-96, July.
    4. Tisdell, Clem, 2001. "Globalisation and sustainability: environmental Kuznets curve and the WTO," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 185-196, November.
    5. Müller-Fürstenberger, Georg & Wagner, Martin, 2006. "Exploring the Environmental Kuznets Hypothesis. Theoretical and Econometric Problems," Economics Series 183, Institute for Advanced Studies.
    6. Jordi Roca Jusmet & Monica Serrano Gutierrez, 2006. "Income Growth and Atmospheric Pollution in Spain: An Input-Output Approach," Working Papers in Economics 164, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
    7. Liu, Xiaozi & Heilig, Gerhard K. & Chen, Junmiao & Heino, Mikko, 2007. "Interactions between economic growth and environmental quality in Shenzhen, China's first special economic zone," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 559-570, May.
    8. Romero-Avila, Diego, 2008. "Questioning the empirical basis of the environmental Kuznets curve for CO2: New evidence from a panel stationarity test robust to multiple breaks and cross-dependence," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 559-574, January.
    9. Khanna, Neha & Plassmann, Florenz, 2007. "Total factor productivity and the Environmental Kuznets Curve: A comment and some intuition," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 54-58, June.
    10. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan & Ewing, Bradley T., 2007. "Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(3-4), pages 482-489, May.
    11. Nguyen Van, Phu & Azomahou, Theophile, 2007. "Nonlinearities and heterogeneity in environmental quality: An empirical analysis of deforestation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 291-309, September.
    12. Haight, Alan Day, 2007. "Diagram for a small planet: The Production and Ecosystem Possibilities Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 224-232, October.
    13. Yandle, B. & Bhattarai, M. & Vijayaraghavan, M., 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curves: a review of findings, methods, and policy implications. PERC Research study 02-1 update," IWMI Research Reports H044740, International Water Management Institute.
    14. Ranjan, Ram & Shortle, James, 2007. "The environmental Kuznets curve when the environment exhibits hysteresis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 204-215, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:68:y:2008:i:1-2:p:273-287. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.