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The nexus between remittance outflows and growth: A study of Saudi Arabia


  • Alkhathlan, Khalid A.


In this study, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and the error correction model (ECM) techniques were applied to empirically examine the relationship between economic growth and outflows of workers' remittances in Saudi Arabia from 1970 to 2010. The results show that there is a negative but statistically insignificant relationship between outflows of workers' remittances and economic growth in the long term. However, there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between workers' remittances and economic growth in the short term. To decrease workers' remittances, Saudi Arabia must find appropriate new channels to convince foreign workers to consume and invest their money in the country. The roles of government expenditures and exports in the economic growth of Saudi Arabia were also investigated. The amount of government expenditures and the value of exports were found to have positive and significant effects on economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

Suggested Citation

  • Alkhathlan, Khalid A., 2013. "The nexus between remittance outflows and growth: A study of Saudi Arabia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 695-700.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:33:y:2013:i:c:p:695-700 DOI: 10.1016/j.econmod.2013.05.010

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ralph Chami & Connel Fullenkamp & Samir Jahjah, 2005. "Are Immigrant Remittance Flows a Source of Capital for Development?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 52(1), pages 55-81, April.
    2. Desai, Mihir A. & Kapur, Devesh & McHale, John & Rogers, Keith, 2009. "The fiscal impact of high-skilled emigration: Flows of Indians to the U.S," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 32-44, January.
    3. Carlos Vargas-Silva & Peng Huang, 2006. "Macroeconomic determinantsof workers' remittances: Hostversus home country's economic conditions," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 81-99.
    4. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    5. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2013. "The long-run and causal analysis of energy, growth, openness and financial development on carbon emissions in Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 262-267.
    6. Kuckulenz, Anja & Buch, Claudia M., 2004. "Worker Remittances and Capital Flows to Developing Countries," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-31, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    7. World Bank, 2011. "World Development Indicators 2011," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2315.
    8. Ketkar, Suhas & Ratha, Dilip, 2001. "Development financing during a crisis : securitization of future receivables," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2582, The World Bank.
    9. Singh, Bhupal, 2006. "Worker’s remittances as stable financial flows: some evidence from India," MPRA Paper 22225, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hathroubi, Salem & Aloui, Chaker, 2016. "On interactions between remittance outflows and Saudi Arabian macroeconomy: New evidence from wavelets," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 32-45.
    2. Gloria Clarissa O. Dzeha, 2016. "The decipher, theory or empirics: a review of remittance studies," African Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(2), pages 113-134.
    3. Murthy, Vasudeva N.R. & Okunade, Albert A., 2016. "Determinants of U.S. health expenditure: Evidence from autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 67-73.
    4. Kakhkharov, Jakhongir & Akimov, Alexandr & Rohde, Nicholas, 2017. "Transaction costs and recorded remittances in the post-Soviet economies: Evidence from a new dataset on bilateral flows," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 98-107.
    5. Williams, Kevin, 2017. "Do remittances improve political institutions? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 65-75.


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