IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/corfin/v23y2013icp88-107.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Equal opportunity rule vs. market rule in transfer of control: How can private benefits help to provide an answer?

Author

Listed:
  • de La Bruslerie, Hubert

Abstract

Having been introduced in the European Union and in many other countries, the equal opportunity rule is seen as protecting investors in the event of a transfer of control. This rule should be analyzed in a context of appropriation of private benefits between the new controlling shareholders and the outside investors. Both parties need to design a new implicit contract to share the firm's ownership. Using a signaling model, we show that the new controlling shareholder issues signals to outside shareholders to deliver private information on a firm's future economic return and her private rate of appropriation. The ownership stake of the controlling shareholder and the premium embedded in the acquisition price are key parameters. In a controlling ownership system, the equal opportunity rule modifies the relative behavior of controlling and outside shareholders. The quality of information deteriorates but the discipline on appropriation may become stronger.

Suggested Citation

  • de La Bruslerie, Hubert, 2013. "Equal opportunity rule vs. market rule in transfer of control: How can private benefits help to provide an answer?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 88-107.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:23:y:2013:i:c:p:88-107
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2013.07.007
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0929119913000643
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2013.07.007?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Doidge, Craig & Karolyi, G. Andrew & Stulz, Rene M., 2004. "Why are foreign firms listed in the U.S. worth more?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 205-238, February.
    2. Barclay, Michael J. & Holderness, Clifford G., 1989. "Private benefits from control of public corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 371-395, December.
    3. Lucian Arye Bebchuk, 1999. "A Rent-Protection Theory of Corporate Ownership and Control," NBER Working Papers 7203, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Arturo Bris & Christos Cabolis, 2008. "The Value of Investor Protection: Firm Evidence from Cross-Border Mergers," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(2), pages 605-648, April.
    5. Marc Goergen, 2005. "Corporate Governance Convergence: Evidence From Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 243-268, Summer.
    6. Barclay, Michael J & Holderness, Clifford G, 1991. "Negotiated Block Trades and Corporate Control," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(3), pages 861-878, July.
    7. Leland, Hayne E & Pyle, David H, 1977. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 371-387, May.
    8. At, Christian & Chappe, Nathalie & Morand, Pierre-Henri, 2004. "Sentencing private benefits in takeover contest," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 409-424, December.
    9. Patrick Bolton & Ernst-Ludwig von Thadden, 1998. "Blocks, Liquidity, and Corporate Control," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 1-25, February.
    10. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 461-488, June.
    11. Atanasov, Vladimir & Boone, Audra & Haushalter, David, 2010. "Is There Shareholder Expropriation in the United States? An Analysis of Publicly Traded Subsidiaries," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(1), pages 1-26, February.
    12. Koke, Jens & Renneboog, Luc, 2005. "Do Corporate Control and Product Market Competition Lead to Stronger Productivity Growth? Evidence from Market-Oriented and Blockholder-Based Governance Regimes," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(2), pages 475-516, October.
    13. Bergstrom, Clas & Hogfeldt, Peter & Molin, Johan, 1997. "The Optimality of the Mandatory Bid Rule," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(2), pages 433-451, October.
    14. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    15. Rossi, Stefano & Volpin, Paolo F., 2004. "Cross-country determinants of mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 277-304, November.
    16. repec:hrv:faseco:30747162 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Lucian Arye Bebchuk, 1994. "Efficient and Inefficient Sales of Corporate Control," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(4), pages 957-993.
    18. Alexander Dyck & Luigi Zingales, 2004. "Private Benefits of Control: An International Comparison," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 537-600, April.
    19. Alain Schatt & Thierry Roy, 2004. "Etude des déterminants de la prime d’acquisition d’un bloc de contrôle:le cas français," Working Papers CREGO 1040602, Université de Bourgogne - CREGO EA7317 Centre de recherches en gestion des organisations.
    20. Martin Holmén & Eugene Nivorozhkin, 2012. "Tender Offers versus Block Trades: Empirical Evidence," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(7-8), pages 511-529, October.
    21. Clifford G. Holderness, 2009. "The Myth of Diffuse Ownership in the United States," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 1377-1408, April.
    22. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
    23. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Fausto Panunzi, 2000. "Agency Conflicts in Public and Negotiated Transfers of Corporate Control," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 647-677, April.
    24. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Fausto Panunzi, 1998. "Why Higher Takeover Premia Protect Minority Shareholders," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 172-204, February.
    25. Marco Pagano & Paolo F. Volpin, 2005. "The Political Economy of Corporate Governance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 1005-1030, September.
    26. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez‐De‐Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    27. Albuquerque, Rui & Schroth, Enrique, 2010. "Quantifying private benefits of control from a structural model of block trades," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 33-55, April.
    28. Christian At & Nathalie Chappe & Pierre-Henri Morand, 2004. "Sentencing private benefits in takeover contest," Post-Print hal-01313419, HAL.
    29. Audra L. Boone & J. Harold Mulherin, 2007. "How Are Firms Sold?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 847-875, April.
    30. Carvalhal da Silva, Andre & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2007. "Dual-class premium, corporate governance, and the mandatory bid rule: Evidence from the Brazilian stock market," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 1-24, March.
    31. Mark Bagnoli, Barton L. Lipman, 1988. "Successful Takeovers without Exclusion," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 1(1), pages 89-110.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Wang, Ying & Lahr, Henry, 2017. "Takeover law to protect shareholders: Increasing efficiency or merely redistributing gains?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 288-315.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Hubert de la Bruslerie, 2010. "The Equal Opportunity Rule in Transfer of Control: A Contractual Model," Post-Print halshs-00636613, HAL.
    2. repec:dau:papers:123456789/3189 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Goergen, Marc & Manjon, Miguel C. & Renneboog, Luc, 2008. "Recent developments in German corporate governance," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 175-193, September.
    4. Marc Goergen, 2005. "Corporate Governance Convergence: Evidence From Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 243-268, Summer.
    5. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Holger M. Mueller & Fausto Panunzi, 2014. "Legal Investor Protection and Takeovers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(3), pages 1129-1165, June.
    6. Pérez-Soba, Inés & Martínez-Cañete, Ana R. & Márquez–de-la-Cruz, Elena, 2021. "Private benefits from control block trades in the Spanish stock exchange," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C).
    7. Trojanowski, Grzegorz, 2008. "Equity block transfers in transition economies: Evidence from Poland," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 217-238, September.
    8. Urzúa Infante, F., 2014. "Essays on ownership and control," Other publications TiSEM f17a9a42-f7a7-4ffa-a95d-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    9. Martynova, M., 2006. "The market for corporate control and corporate governance regulation in Europe," Other publications TiSEM 8651e281-4914-41f2-ac14-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    10. Edmans, Alex & Holderness, Clifford, 2016. "Blockholders: A Survey of Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 11442, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Atanasov, Vladimir, 2005. "How much value can blockholders tunnel? Evidence from the Bulgarian mass privatization auctions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 191-234, April.
    12. Pak Hung Au & Yuk‐Fai Fong & Jin Li, 2020. "Negotiated Block Trade And Rebuilding Of Trust," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 61(2), pages 901-939, May.
    13. Mike Burkart & Denis Gromb & Fausto Panunzi, 2006. "Minority Blocks and Takeover Premia," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 162(1), pages 32-49, March.
    14. Mike Burkart & Samuel Lee, 2008. "One Share - One Vote: the Theory," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 12(1), pages 1-49.
    15. Kim, Hugh & Liao, Rose C. & Wang, Yan, 2015. "Active block investors and corporate governance around the world," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 181-194.
    16. Claessens, Stijn & Yurtoglu, B. Burcin, 2013. "Corporate governance in emerging markets: A survey," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 1-33.
    17. Timothy A. Kruse & Kazunori Suzuki, 2016. "The impact of changes in Japanese tender offer regulations on bidder behavior and shareholder gains," Working Papers halshs-01643926, HAL.
    18. Nenova, Tatiana, 2006. "Takeover laws and financial development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4029, The World Bank.
    19. Sergey Stepanov, 2012. "Takeovers under Asymmetric Information: Block Trades and Tender Offers in Equilibrium," Working Papers w0185, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
    20. Alexander Dyck & Luigi Zingales, 2002. "Private Benefits of Control: An International Comparison," NBER Working Papers 8711, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Albuquerque, Rui & Schroth, Enrique, 2008. "Determinants of the Block Premium and of Private Benefits of Control," CEPR Discussion Papers 6742, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Equal opportunity rule; Transfer of control; Takeover; Controlling shareholder; Investor's protection; Private benefits;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • K2 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:23:y:2013:i:c:p:88-107. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.