IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Nonparametric analysis of technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies for food crop production in East Java, Indonesia


  • Llewelyn, Richard V.
  • Williams, Jeffery R.


Nonparametric analysis of technical efficiency for irrigated farms in the Madiun regency in the west‐central part of East Java, Indonesia is conducted using linear programming techniques. This procedure allows the relative technical efficiency for each farm to be determined and for inefficiencies to be decomposed into pure technical inefficiency and scale inefficiency and does not require restrictions or assumptions regarding functional form to be placed on the data. Farmers in Madiun generally are efficient relative to each other. Farmers operating inefficiently do so more often because of scale inefficiencies rather than pure technical inefficiencies. A majority of the farms operate in the region of decreasing returns to scale rather than increasing returns to scale. Farmer age, the level of diversification of cropping activities, and high school education were found to be related to technical efficiency in the rainy season under irrigated conditions. Other socioeconomic factors were not statistically significant. The results imply that inefficient farms use excessive levels of inputs, particularly nitrogen fertilizer. This is perhaps due to the lingering effects of past input subsidization policies, particularly of fertilizers, in Indonesia, or to risk‐reducing behavior. The results also imply that current government policies to encourage diversification of cropping practices in Java may lead to greater technical inefficiencies in production. In addition, extension education targeted to younger farmers with low levels of formal education would improve efficiency.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Llewelyn, Richard V. & Williams, Jeffery R., 1996. "Nonparametric analysis of technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies for food crop production in East Java, Indonesia," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 15(2), pages 113-126, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agecon:v:15:y:1996:i:2:p:113-126

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hanoch, Giora & Rothschild, Michael, 1972. "Testing the Assumptions of Production Theory: A Nonparametric Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 256-275, March-Apr.
    2. Afriat, Sidney N, 1972. "Efficiency Estimation of Production Function," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 13(3), pages 568-598, October.
    3. Byerlee, Derek R., 1987. "Maintaining the Momentum in Post-Green Revolution Agriculture: A Micro-Level Perspective from Asia," Food Security International Development Papers 54061, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    4. Banker, Rajiv D & Maindiratta, Ajay, 1988. "Nonparametric Analysis of Technical and Allocative Efficiencies in Production," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1315-1332, November.
    5. S. SriRamaratnam & David A. Bessler & M. Edward Rister & John E. Matocha & James Novak, 1987. "Fertilization under Uncertainty: An Analysis Based on Producer Yield Expectations," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 69(2), pages 349-357.
    6. Varian, Hal R, 1984. "The Nonparametric Approach to Production Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 579-597, May.
    7. Azhar, Rauf A, 1991. "Education and Technical Efficiency during the Green Revolution in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(3), pages 651-665, April.
    8. Chavas, Jean-Paul & Aliber, Michael, 1993. "An Analysis Of Economic Efficiency In Agriculture: A Nonparametric Approach," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 18(1), pages 1-16, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agecon:v:15:y:1996:i:2:p:113-126. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.