IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Analyzing the Relationship between Oil Prices and Gold Prices before and after COVID-19


  • Nigar Huseynli

    (Azerbaijan State University of Economics (UNEC), Baku, Azerbaijan.)


The main purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between world oil prices and gold prices. For this purpose, the study is divided into two groups and evaluated as pre-pandemic and post-pandemic. The data set required for the study is evaluated on a daily basis and includes the period from January 2011 to June 2022. For the data of the examined variables, the stationary test was carried out by using the Extended DickeyFuller (ADF) unit root test. In the case of level, it is concluded that the related series are not stationary for these variables. According to the ADF and Johansen cointegration results obtained by applying the first-order difference operation, it was determined that the first-order differences of the variables of interest were stationary, that is, there was no unit root. The Engle-Granger test was used to determine whether there is a long-term relationship between the two variables. The direction of the relationship was tried to be determined by using the Granger causality test. As a result of the study, it was concluded that there is a one-way causality relationship from gold prices to oil prices, before the pandemic.

Suggested Citation

  • Nigar Huseynli, 2023. "Analyzing the Relationship between Oil Prices and Gold Prices before and after COVID-19," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 13(2), pages 373-378, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eco:journ2:2023-02-42

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Raj Aggarwal & Brian M. Lucey, 2007. "Psychological barriers in gold prices?," Review of Financial Economics, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 16(2), pages 217-230.
    2. Baur, Dirk G. & McDermott, Thomas K., 2010. "Is gold a safe haven? International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1886-1898, August.
    3. Boyer, M. Martin & Filion, Didier, 2007. "Common and fundamental factors in stock returns of Canadian oil and gas companies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 428-453, May.
    4. Dirk G. Baur & Brian M. Lucey, 2010. "Is Gold a Hedge or a Safe Haven? An Analysis of Stocks, Bonds and Gold," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 217-229, May.
    5. Bedoui, Rihab & Braiek, Sana & Guesmi, Khaled & Chevallier, Julien, 2019. "On the conditional dependence structure between oil, gold and USD exchange rates: Nested copula based GJR-GARCH model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 876-889.
    6. Adam, Anokye M. & Tweneboah, George, 2008. "Do macroeconomic variables play any role in the stock market movement in Ghana?," MPRA Paper 9301, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Hedi Arouri, Mohamed El & Khuong Nguyen, Duc, 2010. "Oil prices, stock markets and portfolio investment: Evidence from sector analysis in Europe over the last decade," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4528-4539, August.
    8. Zeravan Abdulmuhsen Asaad, 2021. "Oil Price, Gold Price, Exchange Rate and Stock Market in Iraq Pre-During COVID19 Outbreak: An ARDL Approach," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(5), pages 562-571.
    9. Chen, Li-Hsueh & Finney, Miles & Lai, Kon S., 2005. "A threshold cointegration analysis of asymmetric price transmission from crude oil to gasoline prices," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 233-239, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ahmad Alrazni Alshammari, Basheer Altarturi, Buerhan Saiti, Latifah Munassar, 2020. "The impact of exchange rate, oil price and gold price on the Kuwaiti stock market: a wavelet analysis," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 17(1), pages 31-54, June.
    2. Das, Debojyoti & Kannadhasan, M., 2020. "The asymmetric oil price and policy uncertainty shock exposure of emerging market sectoral equity returns: A quantile regression approach," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 563-581.
    3. Godil, Danish Iqbal & Sarwat, Salman & Khan, Muhammad Kamran & Ashraf, Muhammad Sajjad & Sharif, Arshian & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2022. "How the price dynamics of energy resources and precious metals interact with conventional and Islamic Stocks: Fresh insight from dynamic ARDL approach," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    4. Akkoc, Ugur & Civcir, Irfan, 2019. "Dynamic linkages between strategic commodities and stock market in Turkey: Evidence from SVAR-DCC-GARCH model," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 231-239.
    5. Roman Mestre, 2021. "A wavelet approach of investing behaviors and their effects on risk exposures," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 7(1), pages 1-37, December.
    6. Evrim Mandacı, Pınar & Cagli, Efe Çaglar & Taşkın, Dilvin, 2020. "Dynamic connectedness and portfolio strategies: Energy and metal markets," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    7. Nawaz Ahmad & Syed Kashif Rafi & Muhammad Tariq, 2018. "Modeling Nonlinear Granger Causality And Co-Integration Between Gold Price Returns And Crude Oil Price Returns," IBT Journal of Business Studies (JBS), Ilma University, Faculty of Management Science, vol. 14(2), pages 14-19.
    8. Mohamed Arouri & Duc Khuong Nguyen & Kuntara Pukthuanthong, 2014. "Diversification benefits and strategic portfolio allocation across asset classes: The case of the US markets," Working Papers 2014-294, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    9. Kumeka, Terver Theophilus & Uzoma-Nwosu, Damian Chidozie & David-Wayas, Maria Onyinye, 2022. "The effects of COVID-19 on the interrelationship among oil prices, stock prices and exchange rates in selected oil exporting economies," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    10. Ahmed, Walid M.A., 2020. "Corruption and equity market performance: International comparative evidence," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    11. Lang, Korbinian & Auer, Benjamin R., 2020. "The economic and financial properties of crude oil: A review," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    12. El Hedi Arouri, Mohamed & Lahiani, Amine & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2015. "World gold prices and stock returns in China: Insights for hedging and diversification strategies," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 273-282.
    13. Bampinas, Georgios & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2015. "Are gold and silver a hedge against inflation? A two century perspective," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 267-276.
    14. Salisu, Afees A. & Vo, Xuan Vinh & Lucey, Brian, 2021. "Gold and US sectoral stocks during COVID-19 pandemic," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).
    15. Melike E. Bildirici & Memet Salman & Özgür Ömer Ersin, 2022. "Nonlinear Contagion and Causality Nexus between Oil, Gold, VIX Investor Sentiment, Exchange Rate and Stock Market Returns: The MS-GARCH Copula Causality Method," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 10(21), pages 1-16, October.
    16. Maghyereh, Aktham I. & Awartani, Basel & Tziogkidis, Panagiotis, 2017. "Volatility spillovers and cross-hedging between gold, oil and equities: Evidence from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 440-453.
    17. Rupel Nargunam & William W. S. Wei & N. Anuradha, 2021. "Investigating seasonality, policy intervention and forecasting in the Indian gold futures market: a comparison based on modeling non-constant variance using two different methods," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 7(1), pages 1-15, December.
    18. Abdulsalam Abidemi Sikiru & Afees A. Salisu, 2023. "Hedging against risks associated with travel and tourism stocks during COVID‐19 pandemic: The role of gold," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(2), pages 1872-1882, April.
    19. Han, Liyan & Xu, Yang & Yin, Libo, 2017. "Does investor attention matter? The attention-return relation in gold futures market," Economics Discussion Papers 2017-37, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).
    20. Abbass, Kashif & Sharif, Arshian & Song, Huaming & Ali, Malik Tayyab & Khan, Farina & Amin, Nabila, 2022. "Do geopolitical oil price risk, global macroeconomic fundamentals relate Islamic and conventional stock market? Empirical evidence from QARDL approach," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).

    More about this item


    oil price; gold price; COVID-19;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G00 - Financial Economics - - General - - - General
    • L72 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction - - - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources
    • C58 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Financial Econometrics


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eco:journ2:2023-02-42. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Ilhan Ozturk (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.