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Mikrofinanzierung: Motor für Beschäftigung oder Ersatz für soziale Sicherungsnetze?

Listed author(s):
  • Jan Schrader
  • Eva Terberger
Registered author(s):

    What can microfinance contribute to the creation of employment and the increase in well-being of the population? We argue that microfinance has an important benefit for the poor, particularly for subsistence entrepreneurs, as a means of handling shocks and smoothing income. By helping to assure a minimum standard of living on the subsistence level, microfinance partly assumes the functions that in developed economies are provided by social safety nets. A microfinance initiated large scale transformation of poor people into successful entrepreneurs creating small or even medium sized enterprises, however, is not likely to take place, neither in developing nor in industrialised economies. To foster entrepreneurship and to bridge the gap between subsistence activities and prospering enterprise-a gap which is particularly prominent in developing countries due to the high share of the informal economy-microfinance is only part of the solution. Improving the business environment, facilitating the formalisation of unregistered enterprise, and, last but not least, access to better education and vocational training are of equal importance to spur firms' growth and employment creation. Was kann Mikrofinanzierung zu Beschäftigungswachstum und Steigerung des Einkommens ärmerer Bevölkerungsschichten beitragen? Existierende Evidenz, die hier zusammengetragen wird, erlaubt keine erschöpfende Antwort, doch deuten zahlreiche Indizien darauf hin, dass Mikrofinanzierung in Entwicklungsländern breiten Bevölkerungsschichten, die auf dem Subsistenzniveau leben, dabei hilft, mit Einkommensschocks umzugehen und ihren Konsum zu glätten. In Industrieländern dagegen erfolgt die Abfederung von Schocks für untere Einkommensschichten vor allem über soziale Sicherungsnetze. Weder in Entwicklungsländern noch in Industrieländern wird es allein durch den Zugang zu Mikrofinanzierung gelingen, maßgebliche Teile der ärmeren Bevölkerung zu erfolgreichen Unternehmern zu machen, die Subsistenzunternehmen in kleine oder gar mittlere Unternehmen mit zahlreichen neuen Arbeitsplätzen transformieren. Bei der Überwindung der Kluft zwischen Subsistenzwirtschaft und Unternehmen mit Wachstumspotential, die in Entwicklungsländern durch den hohen Anteil des informellen Sektors verschärft wird, spielt der von Mikrofinanzinstitutionen geschaffene Zugang zu Finanzierung zwar eine wichtige Rolle. Rechtliche und institutionelle Rahmenbedingungen, die eine Formalisierung der Unternehmen und die Ausbildung der Bevölkerung fördern, sind jedoch für das Wachstum von Unternehmen und die Schaffung von Arbeitsplätzen gleichermaßen wichtig.

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    Article provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its journal Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung.

    Volume (Year): 81 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 45-60

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    Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:81-3-5
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    1. Levine, Ross, 2002. "Bank-Based or Market-Based Financial Systems: Which Is Better?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 398-428, October.
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