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Offener Marktzugang im europäischen Schienenpersonenverkehr: Erfahrungen aus der Wettbewerbsentwicklung


  • Christiane Warnecke
  • Georg Goetz


Only some commercial passenger rail markets in Europe have been liberalized so far. Service providers have access to international routes and to national services in some countries. The EU Commissions plans to present a proposal for full liberalization in 2012. The article describes the current scope of liberalisation and the present regulatory framework for example regarding track access and pricing. An overview of the competitive situation in the open access markets illustrates that entrants have mainly been testing the market. This seems to change with new large scale entries in Italy and Austria. These examples and the analysis of market characteristics show that there is little room for low-risk entry strategies in commercial passenger rail. High and partly irreversible investments are typical for the market. We discuss the impact of the regulatory framework and of market conditions on investment risk and investment incentives. Die Märkte im eigenwirtschaftlichen Schienenpersonenverkehr sind in Europa bisher nur teilweise geöffnet. Anbieter haben Zugang zu internationalen Strecken sowie in einigen Ländern zu nationalen Verkehren. Die EU-Kommission will 2012 einen Vorschlag für die vollständige Öffnung des Marktes vorlegen. Der Artikel stellt den Stand der Liberalisierung dar und beleuchtet den aktuellen regulatorischen Rahmen, unter anderem die Konditionen für Trassenzugang und die Trassenpreise. Ein Überblick über die aktuelle Wettbewerbssituation in den bereits geöffneten Märkten zeigt, dass Angebote von Entrants bisher eher einen Testcharakter hatten, dass sich dies aber mit neuen Angeboten in Österreich und Italien ändert. Diese Beispiele und die Analyse der Marktcharakteristika machen deutlich, dass im Schienenpersonenverkehr wenig Raum für Low-risk-Markteintrittsstrategien besteht. Vielmehr sind typischerweise erhebliche, teilweise irreversible Investitionen zu tätigen. Wir diskutieren in diesem Zusammenhang die Auswirkungen des regulatorischen Rahmens und des Marktumfelds auf Planungssicherheit und Investitionsanreize.

Suggested Citation

  • Christiane Warnecke & Georg Goetz, 2012. "Offener Marktzugang im europäischen Schienenpersonenverkehr: Erfahrungen aus der Wettbewerbsentwicklung," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 81(1), pages 111-130.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:81-1-8
    DOI: 10.3790/vjh.81.1.111

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ivaldi, Marc & Seabright, Paul, 2003. "The Economics of Passenger Rail Transport: A Survey," IDEI Working Papers 163, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    2. Thorsten Beckers & Christian von Hirschhausen & Fabian Haunerland & Matthias Walter, 2009. "Long-Distance Passenger Rail Services in Europe: Market Access Models and Implications for Germany," OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers 2009/22, OECD Publishing.
    3. Marc Ivaldi & Catherine Vibes, 2008. "Price Competition in the Intercity Passenger Transport Market: A Simulation Model," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 42(2), pages 225-254, May.
    4. Friebel Guido & Niffka Marko, 2009. "The Functioning of Inter-modal Competition in the Transportation Market: Evidence from the Entry of Low-cost Airlines in Germany," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(2), pages 1-23, June.
    5. Johannes Paha & Dirk Rompf & Christiane Warnecke, 2011. "Estimating Travellers’ Preferences for Competition in Commercial Passenger Rail Transport," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201137, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    6. John Preston, 2009. "Competition for Long Distance Passenger Rail Services: The Emerging Evidence," OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers 2009/23, OECD Publishing.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paha, Johannes & Rompf, Dirk & Warnecke, Christiane, 2013. "Customer choice patterns in passenger rail competition," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 209-227.
    2. Feuerstein, Lisa & Busacker, Torsten & Xu, Jingjing, 2018. "Factors influencing open access competition in the European long-distance passenger rail transport — A Delphi study," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 300-309.

    More about this item


    Europe; passenger rail; liberalisation;

    JEL classification:

    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation
    • L92 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation


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