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Offener Marktzugang im europäischen Schienenpersonenverkehr: Erfahrungen aus der Wettbewerbsentwicklung

  • Christiane Warnecke
  • Georg Goetz

Only some commercial passenger rail markets in Europe have been liberalized so far. Service providers have access to international routes and to national services in some countries. The EU Commissions plans to present a proposal for full liberalization in 2012. The article describes the current scope of liberalisation and the present regulatory framework for example regarding track access and pricing. An overview of the competitive situation in the open access markets illustrates that entrants have mainly been testing the market. This seems to change with new large scale entries in Italy and Austria. These examples and the analysis of market characteristics show that there is little room for low-risk entry strategies in commercial passenger rail. High and partly irreversible investments are typical for the market. We discuss the impact of the regulatory framework and of market conditions on investment risk and investment incentives. Die Märkte im eigenwirtschaftlichen Schienenpersonenverkehr sind in Europa bisher nur teilweise geöffnet. Anbieter haben Zugang zu internationalen Strecken sowie in einigen Ländern zu nationalen Verkehren. Die EU-Kommission will 2012 einen Vorschlag für die vollständige Öffnung des Marktes vorlegen. Der Artikel stellt den Stand der Liberalisierung dar und beleuchtet den aktuellen regulatorischen Rahmen, unter anderem die Konditionen für Trassenzugang und die Trassenpreise. Ein Überblick über die aktuelle Wettbewerbssituation in den bereits geöffneten Märkten zeigt, dass Angebote von Entrants bisher eher einen Testcharakter hatten, dass sich dies aber mit neuen Angeboten in Österreich und Italien ändert. Diese Beispiele und die Analyse der Marktcharakteristika machen deutlich, dass im Schienenpersonenverkehr wenig Raum für Low-risk-Markteintrittsstrategien besteht. Vielmehr sind typischerweise erhebliche, teilweise irreversible Investitionen zu tätigen. Wir diskutieren in diesem Zusammenhang die Auswirkungen des regulatorischen Rahmens und des Marktumfelds auf Planungssicherheit und Investitionsanreize.

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Article provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its journal Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung.

Volume (Year): 81 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 111-130

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Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:81-1-8
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