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Der Fall Russland: Korruption als Kollateralschaden der Transformation?


  • Petra Stykow


Corruption economics usually attributes the pervasiveness of corruption in post-communist Russia to the shortcomings of market reforms. While this seems to be an adequate explanation of the dramatic increase of monetarized corruption during transition, it misses the other side of the coin: In addition to "market corruption" Russia is plagued by clientelistic "parochial corruption", a consequence of the incomplete separation between political and economic spheres. Not eliminated during the early 1990s, this intertwining of business and politics has been reinforced during the last few years, accompanied by increasing levels of parochial corruption. Hence, combating corruption of both forms needs more than merely anti-corruption strategies, namely the redefinition of relationships between state and society as cornerstone of democratic institution-building. While Putin's neo-authoritarian reconstitution of the Russian state actually may yield effective campaigns against market corruption, the prospects to contain parochial corruption remain rather bleak. Der Mainstream der Korruptionsforschung schreibt das hohe Ausmaß an Korruption im postkommunistischen Russland dem Design und der Umsetzung der Marktreformen seit Anfang der 90er Jahre zu. Tatsächlich kann die Zunahme von Bestechung den Turbulenzen des Übergangs plausibel zugerechnet werden. Erweitert man die Betrachtung jedoch um die klientelistisch regulierte "parochiale Korruption", dann ist zwar deren Weiterexistenz den Mängeln der Reformpolitik anzulasten, nicht aber ihre Ursache. Diese liegt vielmehr in der unvollständigen Ausdifferenzierung der Sphären "Politik" und "Wirtschaft". Die Verflechtung beider Bereiche hat in Russland eine lange Tradition, die durch die Reformen bisher nicht gebrochen wurde und sich in jüngster Zeit wieder verstärkt hat. Die Aussichten erfolgreicher Korruptionsbekämpfung müssen deshalb auch unter der demokratietheoretischen Perspektive des Verhältnisses von Staat und Gesellschaft bewertet werden: Angesichts der neoautoritären Rekonstituierungstendenzen des russischen Staates unter Putin stehen sie unter Umständen günstig für die Eindämmung marktförmiger, nicht aber parochialer Korruption.

Suggested Citation

  • Petra Stykow, 2004. "Der Fall Russland: Korruption als Kollateralschaden der Transformation?," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 73(2), pages 247-262.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:73-20-6

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