Stationary populations with below-replacement fertility
With constant immigration flows, there are an uncountably infinite number of stationary populations for any below-replacement fertility schedule f and life table l. Each corresponds to a different pattern of age-specific annual immigrant inflows. This brief paper derives a general formula for the age structure of these populations, provides numerical examples using contemporary Austrian demographic data, and illustrates an application of the main relationship to the study of stationary dependency ratios.
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- Thomas Espenshade & Leon Bouvier & W. Arthur, 1982. "Immigration and the stable population model," Demography, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 125-133, February.
- S. Mitra, 1990. "Immigration, below-replacement fertility, and long-term national population trends," Demography, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 121-129, February.
- Carl Schmertmann, 2012. "Stationary populations with below-replacement fertility," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 26(14), pages 319-330, April.
- Zheng Wu & Nan Li, 2003. "Immigration and the dependency ratio of a host population," Mathematical Population Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 21-39.
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