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Globalization in the World of Finance: An Analytical History

Author

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  • Das Dilip K.

    (Professor of International Economics, School of Business, Conestoga College, Ontario, Canada)

Abstract

One of the many definitions of financial globalization is integration of domestic financial system of a country with the global financial markets and institutions. Enabling framework of financial globalization essentially includes liberalization and deregulation of the domestic financial sector as well as liberalization of the capital account. As economies progressively integrate globally, pari passu the financial structures of markets and the world of finance change. Financial globalization cannot be considered a novel phenomenon. Trans-country capital movements are centuries old.The oil shock of 1973 and the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, both of these developments were momentous and were responsible for laying the foundation of the contemporary era of financial globalization. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, some middle-income developing economies began to liberalize and open up for greater capital mobility, while keeping an autonomous control over their monetary policy. Advances in IT and computer technology are cited as one of the most important factors driving and supporting financial globalization. Transnational corporations (TNCs) also helped in global financial integration. They expanded their networks by merging with or acquiring other national and international firms. The prime movers in financial globalization are governments, borrowers, investors, and financial institutions. Each one of these market participants propelled economies towards financial integration in a proactive manner.Financial globalization has caused dramatic changes in the structure of national and international capital markets. The most significant change in the capital markets was in the banking system, which went through a process of dis-intermediation. This was a market transformation of fundamental nature.Contagions and crises are the downsides of financial globalization. Economic and financial crises of the 1990s portend to the fact that financial globalization is not a win-win game, and that it can potentially lead to serious disorder and high cost in terms of bank failures, corporate bankruptcies, stock market turbulence, depletion of foreign exchange reserves, currency depreciation and increased fiscal burden. A unique characteristic of globalized financial markets is reversal of capital flows when market perception regarding the creditworthiness of the borrowing entity changes.Cross-country financial flows to the emerging market economies were low, at during the mid-1970s. They increased at a healthy clip during the decades of 1980s and 1990s, peaking in 1997. They suffered a sharp decline after that because of the Asian and Russian financial and economic crises. The composition of external capital underwent a dramatic transformation during this period. Official flows either stagnated or declined. As a result their relative significance in global capital flows dwindled. In their place, private capital flows became the major source of external finance for a good number of emerging market economies. FDI became an important and dependable source of finance for the emerging markets and other middle-income economies during the decade of the 1980s and 1990s. Portfolio investment in stocks and bond markets also increased substantially. Global institutional investors found this channel of investment functional and profitable. Mutual funds, insurance companies, and pension funds channeled large amounts through portfolio investment into the emerging market economies.As financial globalization progressed, presence of international financial intermediaries has expanded considerably. This applies more to international commercial banks than to investment banks, insurance companies and mutual funds. It is incorrect to say that their global expansion has been uniform because this has occurred unevenly. International bond issuance activity by emerging market economies recorded a sharp spurt in 1993. Emerging market economies began using ADRs and GDRs for raising capital from the global capital markets in 1990 in a small way.

Suggested Citation

  • Das Dilip K., 2006. "Globalization in the World of Finance: An Analytical History," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-25, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:glecon:v:6:y:2006:i:1:n:2
    DOI: 10.2202/1524-5861.1115
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    1. Joel Smith, "undated". "Technical Working Paper: Creation of the September 2009 Baseline of the 2005 MATH SIPP+ Microsimulation Model and Database," Mathematica Policy Research Reports c2dd86c53a2b4f979e41ac610, Mathematica Policy Research.
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    1. Incorporating the Rentier Sectors into a Financial Model
      by Michael in Michael Hudson on 2012-09-12 16:56:01

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    Cited by:

    1. Dirk Bezemer, 2014. "Schumpeter might be right again: the functional differentiation of credit," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 24(5), pages 935-950, November.
    2. Dirk J. Bezemer, 2011. "Who Predicted the Crisis and What Can We Learn from Them?," Chapters, in: Óscar Dejuán & Eladio Febrero & Maria Cristina Marcuzzo (ed.), The First Great Recession of the 21st Century, chapter 1, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Sophie Nivoix & Dominique Pepin, 2009. "Intérêts et limites de la globalisation comme processus créateur d'investissement," Post-Print hal-00963658, HAL.
    4. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chiu, Yi-Bin, 2016. "Globalization and insurance activity: Evidence on the industrial and emerging countries," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 328-349.
    5. Bezemer, Dirk J., 2010. "Understanding financial crisis through accounting models," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 676-688, October.
    6. Bezemer, Dirk J, 2009. "“No One Saw This Coming”: Understanding Financial Crisis Through Accounting Models," MPRA Paper 15892, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Dirk J. Bezemer, 2012. "Modelos contables y comprensión de la crisis financiera," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 14(26), pages 47-76, January-J.
    8. Chen, Pei-Fen & Lin, Chun-Wei & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2019. "Financial crises, globalization, and insurer performance: Some international evidence," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 835-856.
    9. Wolfgang Breuer & Santiago Ruiz de Vargas, 2021. "Some key developments in international financial management," Journal of Business Economics, Springer, vol. 91(5), pages 595-615, July.
    10. repec:hal:wpaper:hal-00963658 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Mana Komai, 2007. "Leading the Ignorant: Can Ignorance Eliminate the Free Riding Problem?," Iranian Economic Review (IER), Faculty of Economics,University of Tehran.Tehran,Iran, vol. 12(3), pages 127-145, fall & wi.
    12. Vuong, Quan-Hoang, 2017. "The Vietnamese financial economy: reforms and development, 1986-2016," OSF Preprints g7e6t, Center for Open Science.
    13. Michael Hudson & Dirk Bezemer, 2012. "Incorporating the Rentier Sectors into a Financial Model," World Economic Review, World Economics Association, vol. 2012(1), pages 1-1, September.
    14. Marco Mele, 2014. "On Asset Allocation’ Studies for Sovereign Wealth Funds," International Journal of Financial Economics, Research Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 2(4), pages 169-180.

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