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The Role of Geography in Financial and Economic Integration: A Comparative Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment, Trade and Portfolio Investment Flows

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  • Selen Sarisoy Guerin

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to examine the role of geography in explaining the patterns of financial and economic integration among both developed and developing countries. Using a gravity model, we compare North-North, North-South and South-North FDI, trade and portfolio investment flows to examine how geographical factors influence these bilateral flows. The results indicate that the impact of geography variables on FDI and portfolio are similar to their effect on trade. Geography variables have a statistically significant effect both on FDI and portfolio investment, but FDI is more sensitive to distance. We interpret the negative effect of distance as the existence of information costs in financial flows. Also bilateral FDI, trade and portfolio investment flows react to macroeconomic fundamentals in the same way, however, with different degrees of sensitivity. There are significant differences between North-North and North-South flows. Our results find support for the argument that most FDI among industrial countries are horizontal, whereas most FDI investment in developing countries is vertical. The fact that the significance of geographical variables on financial flows still remained even after controlling for the macroeconomic fundamentals, is in contrast with the standard capital market model. The results can, however, be reconciled if geographical factors can proxy for information costs, which may in turn explain why country portfolios are still home-biased. The significant effect of distance on financial flows may also explain how idiosyn cratic shocks are spread (i.e. contagion) to other countries in the same region. Ultimately, the geographical location of a country may determine its economic and financial integration into the world economy. Copyright 2006 The Authors Journal compilation 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd .

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  • Selen Sarisoy Guerin, 2006. "The Role of Geography in Financial and Economic Integration: A Comparative Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment, Trade and Portfolio Investment Flows," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(2), pages 189-209, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:worlde:v:29:y:2006:i:2:p:189-209
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    4. Harald Badinger & Jesus Crespo Cuaresma, 2015. "Aggregravity: estimating gravity models from aggregate data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(20), pages 2119-2126, April.
    5. Kahouli, Bassem & Maktouf, Samir, 2015. "The determinants of FDI and the impact of the economic crisis on the implementation of RTAs: A static and dynamic gravity model," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 518-529.
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    7. Joshua Aizenman & Ilan Noy, 2008. "Links between Trade and Finance: A Disaggregated Analysis," NBER Chapters,in: Financial Markets Volatility and Performance in Emerging Markets, pages 9-28 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Kim, Dong-Hyeon & Lin, Shu-Chin & Suen, Yu-Bo, 2013. "Investment, trade openness and foreign direct investment: Social capability matters," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 56-69.
    9. Stacie Beck & Alexis Chaves, 2011. "The Impacts of Various Taxes on Foreign Direct Investment," Working Papers 11-18, University of Delaware, Department of Economics.
    10. Han, Yutao & Pieretti, Patrice & Zanaj, Skerdilajda & Zou, Benteng, 2014. "Asymmetric competition among nation states: A differential game approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 71-79.
    11. Fathi Abid & Slah Bahloul, 2010. "Selected MENA Countries’ Attractiveness to G7 Investors," Working Papers 531, Economic Research Forum, revised 07 Jan 2010.
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    14. Barbara Pfeffer, 2008. "Do regional Trade and Specialization drive intra-regional Risk-Sharing?," MAGKS Papers on Economics 200813, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
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    16. Alexandra Peter, 2012. "Bilateral Trade, Openness, and Asset Holdings," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 713-740, September.
    17. Ezcurra, Roberto & Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés, 2013. "Does Economic Globalization affect Regional Inequality? A Cross-country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 92-103.
    18. Belkacem Laabas and Walid Abdmoulah, "undated". "Determinants of Arab Intraregional Foreign Direct Investments," API-Working Paper Series 0905, Arab Planning Institute - Kuwait, Information Center.
    19. Pat McAllister & Anupam Nanda, 2016. "Does Real Estate Defy Gravity? An Analysis of Foreign Real Estate Investment Flows," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(5), pages 924-948, November.
    20. Ekaterina Dorodnykh, 2014. "Determinants of stock exchange integration: evidence in worldwide perspective," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(2), pages 292 - 316, March.
    21. Wattanadumrong, Bhagaporn & Collins, Alan & Snell, Martin C., 2014. "Taking the Thai trail: Attracting FDI via macro-level policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1135-1151.
    22. Philip R. Lane, 2008. "The Macroeconomics of Financial Integration: A European Perspective," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp265, IIIS.
    23. Feeny, Simon & Iamsiraroj, Sasi & McGillivray, Mark, 2014. "Growth and Foreign Direct Investment in the Pacific Island countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 332-339.

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