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On the Equivalence between the APV and the wacc Approach in a Growing Leveraged Firm


  • Mario Massari
  • Francesco Roncaglio
  • Laura Zanetti


While in a steady state framework the choice between the wacc approach ( Modigliani‐Miller, 1963 ) and the adjusted present value (APV) approach ( Myers, 1974 ) is irrelevant since the two approaches provide the same result, however, in a growing firm context the wacc equation seems to be inconsistent with the APV result. In this paper we propose a simple model to evaluate the tax savings in a growing firm in order to show under which assumptions the two approaches lead to the same results. We demonstrate that the use of the wacc model in a steady‐growth scenario gives rise to some unusual assumptions with regard to the discount rates to be used in calculating tax shields. We show that the widely used wacc formula, if used, as it is in most cases, in a growth context, implies that a) debt tax shield related to already existing debt are discounted using kd; b) debt tax shield related to new debt, due to company's growth, are discounted, according to a mixed procedure, using both ku and kd. We discuss the inconsistency of such a discounting procedure and the preferred features of the APV approach.

Suggested Citation

  • Mario Massari & Francesco Roncaglio & Laura Zanetti, 2008. "On the Equivalence between the APV and the wacc Approach in a Growing Leveraged Firm," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(1), pages 152-162, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:eufman:v:14:y:2008:i:1:p:152-162
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-036X.2007.00392.x

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Cooper, Ian A. & Nyborg, Kjell G., 2006. "The value of tax shields IS equal to the present value of tax shields," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 215-225, July.
    2. Enrique R. Arzac & Lawrence R. Glosten, 2005. "A Reconsideration of Tax Shield Valuation," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(4), pages 453-461, September.
    3. Hamada, Robert S, 1972. "The Effect of the Firm's Capital Structure on the Systematic Risk of Common Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 27(2), pages 435-452, May.
    4. Myers, Stewart C, 1974. "Interactions of Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions-Implications for Capital Budgeting," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(1), pages 1-25, March.
    5. Fama, Eugene F., 1977. "Risk-adjusted discount rates and capital budgeting under uncertainty," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 3-24, August.
    6. Fernandez, Pablo, 2002. "Valuation Methods and Shareholder Value Creation," Elsevier Monographs, Elsevier, edition 1, number 9780122538414.
    7. Fernandez, Pablo, 2004. "Reply to "The value of tax shields is equal to the present value of tax shields"," IESE Research Papers D/576, IESE Business School.
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    Cited by:

    1. Magni, Carlo Alberto & Marchioni, Andrea, 2020. "Average rates of return, working capital, and NPV-consistency in project appraisal: A sensitivity analysis approach," MPRA Paper 99922, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Sarmiento-Sabogal, Julio & Sadeghi, Mehdi, 2014. "Unlevered betas and the cost of equity capital: An empirical approach," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 90-105.
    3. Michael Dempsey, 2015. "Stock Markets, Investments and Corporate Behavior:A Conceptual Framework of Understanding," World Scientific Books, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., number p1007, September.
    4. Fabrizio Battisti & Orazio Campo, 2019. "A Methodology for Determining the Profitability Index of Real Estate Initiatives Involving Public–Private Partnerships. A Case Study: The Integrated Intervention Programs in Rome," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(5), pages 1-22, March.
    5. Mike Dempsey, 2013. "Consistent Cash Flow Valuation with Tax†Deductible Debt: a Clarification," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 19(4), pages 830-836, September.
    6. Michael Dempsey, 2019. "Discounting methods and personal taxes," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 25(2), pages 310-324, March.
    7. Ronald W. Spahr & Pankaj K. Jain & Fariz Huseynov & Bhavik Rajesh Parikh, 2012. "Tax policy and macro-finance in a competitive global economy where government is considered as firms' third financial stakeholder," Global Business and Economics Review, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 14(1/2), pages 30-66.

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