IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Like Products, Health and Environmental Exceptions: The Interpretation of PPMs in Recent WTO Trade Dispute Cases

Listed author(s):
  • Read, Robert

This article is concerned with the ongoing debate on process and production methods (PPMs) and the extent to which existing GATT 1994 articles and WTO agreements are able to deal with these issues. The article provides an overview of GATT articles III.4 on like products and XX on general exceptions as well as the SPS and TBT agreements. It then summarises four recent GATT/WTO trade dispute cases involving PPM issues: tuna-dolphin; shrimp-turtle; gasoline standards; and asbestos. The WTO panel and appellate body decisions in these cases are analysed with regard to articles III.4 and XX in the context of the evolution of WTO case law with respect to PPMs. Inferences are also drawn concerning the likely implications for a potential trade dispute over GM products between the EU and the United States. The article then draws some policy conclusions.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Article provided by Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade in its journal Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy.

Volume (Year): 05 (2004)
Issue (Month): 2 ()

in new window

Handle: RePEc:ags:ecjilt:23900
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Suite 820, 410 22nd Street East, Saskatoon SK, S7K 5T6

Phone: (306) 244-4800
Fax: (306) 244-7839
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

in new window

  1. Sam Laird, 2001. "Dolphins, Turtles, Mad Cows and Butterflies - A Look at the Multilateral Trading System in the 21st Century," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(4), pages 453-481, 04.
  2. Holmes, Peter & Rollo, Jim & Young, Alasdair R., 2003. "Emerging trends in WTO dispute settlement : back to the GATT?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3133, The World Bank.
  3. Colyer, Dale, 2003. "Agriculture and Environmental Issues in Free Trade Agreements," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 4(2).
  4. Bhagwati, Jagdish, 2000. "On thinking clearly about the linkage between trade and the environment," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(04), pages 483-529, October.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:ecjilt:23900. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.