Pervasiveness and Patterns of Non-tariff Measures Affecting EU Agri-food Exports
Evaluating the importance of non-tariff measures (NTMs) remains a major challenge. This paper reports evidence on the prevalence of NTMs in the agri-food sector based on an EU inventory of business complaints. This data source has the advantage of drawing on experiences of economic agents that are directly involved in trading activities, of containing information on domestic governance issues, and of covering procedural aspects of NTMs. The results suggest that business complaints about price control measures, quantitative import controls, monopolistic measures, technical measures, and certification are particularly frequent.
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