Human Resources in China: The Birth Quota, Returns to Schooling, and Migration
AbstractRural elderly have 40% of the income of those in urban areas, spend a larger share of their income on food, are in worse health, work later into their lives, and depend more on their children, lacking pensions and public services. The birth quota since 1980 has particularly restricted the childbearing of rural less educated women, who now face retirement with fewer children for support. Inequality in China can also be traced to increasing returns to schooling, especially beyond secondary school. Government restrictions on rural-urban migration reduce national efficiency, add to the urban-rural wage gap, and increase inequality.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Yale School of Management in its series Yale School of Management Working Papers with number ysm366.
Date of creation: 28 Jul 2004
Date of revision:
Human Capital Returns; Rural-urban Migration; Elderly Poverty; China;
Other versions of this item:
- T. Paul Schultz, 2004. "Human resources in China: the birth quota, returns to schooling, and migration," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 245-267, October.
- T. Paul Schultz, 2003. "Human Resources in China: The Birth Quota, Returns to Schooling, and Migration," Working Papers 855, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- J14 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped; Non-Labor Market Discrimination
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
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