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Regulatory Evaluation of Value-at-Risk Models

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  • Jose A. Lopez

Abstract

Value-at-risk (VaR) models have been accepted by banking regulators as tools for setting capital requirements for market risk exposure. Three statistical methodologies for evaluating the accuracy of such models are examined; specifically, evaluation based on the binomial distribution, interval forecast evaluation as proposed by Christoffersen (1995), and distribution forecast evaluation as proposed by Crnkovic and Drachman (1995). These methodologies test whether the VaR forecasts in question exhibit properties characteristic of accurate VaR forecasts. However, the statistical tests used often have low power against alternative models. A new evaluation methodology, based on the probability forecasting framework discussed by Lopez (1995), is proposed. This methodology gauges the accuracy of VaR models using forecast evaluation techniques. It is argued that this methodology provides users, such as regulatory agencies, with greater flexibility to tailor the evaluations to their particular interests by defining the appropriate loss function. Simulation results indicate that this methodology is clearly capable of differentiating among accurate and alternative VaR models. This paper was presented at the Financial Institutions Center's October 1996 conference on "

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania in its series Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers with number 96-51.

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Date of creation: Sep 1996
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Handle: RePEc:wop:pennin:96-51

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References

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  1. Granger, C. W. J. & White, Halbert & Kamstra, Mark, 1989. "Interval forecasting : An analysis based upon ARCH-quantile estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 87-96, January.
  2. Francis X. Diebold & Todd A. Gunther & Anthony S. Tay, 1997. "Evaluating density forecasts," Working Papers 97-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  3. Darryll Hendricks & Beverly Hirtle, 1997. "Bank capital requirements for market risk: the internal models approach," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Dec, pages 1-12.
  4. Chatfield, Chris, 1993. "Calculating Interval Forecasts," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 11(2), pages 121-35, April.
  5. Paul H. Kupiec, 1995. "Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-24, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Francis X. Diebold & Jose A. Lopez, 1995. "Forecast evaluation and combination," Research Paper 9525, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  7. Christoffersen, Peter F, 1998. "Evaluating Interval Forecasts," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(4), pages 841-62, November.
  8. repec:att:wimass:9520 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. Lopez, Jose A, 2001. "Evaluating the Predictive Accuracy of Volatility Models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(2), pages 87-109, March.
  10. Granger, C.W.J. & Pesaran, H., 1996. "A Decision_Theoretic Approach to Forecast Evaluation," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9618, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  11. Darryll Hendricks, 1996. "Evaluation of value-at-risk models using historical data," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Apr, pages 39-69.
  12. Paul H. Kupiec & James M. O'Brien, 1995. "A pre-commitment approach to capital requirements for market risk," Proceedings 475, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  13. J. S. Butler & Barry Schachter, 1996. "Improving Value-At-Risk Estimates By Combining Kernel Estimation With Historical Simulation," Finance 9605001, EconWPA.
  14. Arturo Estrella, 1995. "A prolegomenon to future capital requirements," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Jul, pages 1-12.
  15. Dimson, Elroy & Marsh, Paul, 1995. " Capital Requirements for Securities Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(3), pages 821-51, July.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Manfredo, Mark R. & Leuthold, Raymond M., 1999. "Measuring Market Risk Of The Cattle Feeding Margin: An Application Of Value-At-Risk Analysis," 1999 Annual meeting, August 8-11, Nashville, TN 21628, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  2. L. Kourouma & D. Dupre & G. Sanfilippo & O. Taramasco, 2011. "Extreme Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall during Financial Crisis," Post-Print halshs-00658495, HAL.
  3. Sean D. Campbell, 2005. "A review of backtesting and backtesting procedures," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2005-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. Jeremy Berkowitz, 1999. "Evaluating the forecasts of risk models," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-11, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  5. Michael Clements, 2006. "Evaluating the survey of professional forecasters probability distributions of expected inflation based on derived event probability forecasts," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 49-64, March.
  6. Luiz Renato Lima & Breno Pinheiro Néri, 2006. "Comparing Value-at-Risk Methodologies," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 1, Society for Computational Economics.
  7. Jose A. Lopez, 1999. "Methods for evaluating value-at-risk estimates," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 3-17.
  8. Michael P. Clements & Nick Taylor, 2003. "Evaluating interval forecasts of high-frequency financial data," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 445-456.
  9. Haas, Markus & Mittnik, Stefan & Paolella, Marc S., 2008. "Asymmetric multivariate normal mixture GARCH," CFS Working Paper Series 2008/07, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  10. Jose A. Lopez & Marc R. Saidenberg, 1999. "Evaluating credit risk models," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 99-06, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  11. William E. Nganje & Mounir Siaplay & Simeon Kaitibie & Emmanuel T. Acquah, 2006. "Predicting food safety losses in turkey processing and the economic incentives of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) intervention," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(4), pages 475-489.
  12. Mark R. Manfredo. & Raymond M. Leuthold, 1999. "Market Risk Measurement and the Cattle Feeding Margin: An Application of Value-at-Risk," Finance 9908002, EconWPA.
  13. Aymen BEN REJEB & Ousama BEN SALHA & Jaleleddine BEN REJEB, 2012. "Value-at-Risk Analysis for the Tunisian Currency Market: A Comparative Study," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 2(2), pages 110-125.
  14. Stephanos Papadamou & George Stephanides, 2004. "Evaluating the style-based risk model for equity mutual funds investing in Europe," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(10), pages 751-760.
  15. Xiongwei Ju & Neil D. Pearson, 1998. "Using Value-at-Risk to Control Risk Taking: How Wrong Can you Be?," Finance 9810002, EconWPA.

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