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Agency Incentives and Reputational Distortions: a Comparison of the Effectiveness of Value-at-Risk and Pre-commitment in Regulating Market Risk

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  • Arupratan Daripa
  • Simone Varotto

Abstract

In regulating the market risk exposure of banks, the approach taken to date is (in either the Standard or the Value-at-Risk methodology) to use a 'hard-link' regime that sets a fixed relation between exposure and capital requirement exogenously. A new 'Pre-commitment' approach (PCA) proposes the use of a 'soft-link'. Such a link is not externally imposed, but arises endogenously. In other words, it relies on the interaction between the bank owner and managers which is based on the preferences of both parties and the compensation scheme offered to the managers. Such an approach is of much greater economic appeal, as it is incentive-based and so less prescriptive. But, this paper argues that there is a trade off. The use of incentives by the new approach implies that a whole host of strategic interactions in the bank are relevant in evaluating its effectiveness. This aspect of a soft-link regulation such as PCA seems to have received little attention. We attempt to clarify the precise nature of the trade-off by analysing two potential sources of distortion: agency and reputational. In the context of a simple principle-agent model, the paper studies incentives generated by PCA on managerial risk-taking when the level of risk is not directly contractable. We identify contexts in which a distortion might arise. Second, it studies the effect of reputational concerns under public disclosure of a breach. The paper shows that this might lead to a perverse pattern in the relative size of the trading activities compared with the size of bank as a whole. A hard-link approach avoids such distortions. The results form a first step towards modifying PCA to construct optimal incentive-compatible regulatory schemes. How PCA might be modified to rectify the distortions identified here, is discussed informally.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of England in its series Bank of England working papers with number 69.

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Date of creation: Oct 1997
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Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:69

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  1. Giammarino, Ronald M & Lewis, Tracy R & Sappington, David E M, 1993. " An Incentive Approach to Banking Regulation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(4), pages 1523-42, September.
  2. Paul H. Kupiec & James M. O'Brien, 1997. "The pre-commitment approach: using incentives to set market risk capital requirements," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-14, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Yuk-Shee Chan & Stuart I. Greenbaum & Anjan V. Thakor, 2004. "Is Fairly Priced Deposit Insurance Possible?," Finance 0411018, EconWPA.
  4. Tim S. Campbell & Yuk-Shee Chan & Anthony M. Marino, 1990. "An incentive based theory of bank regulation," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov.
  5. Paul H. Kupiec, 1995. "Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-24, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Paul H. Kupiec & James M. O'Brien, 1995. "A pre-commitment approach to capital requirements for market risk," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Dimson, Elroy & Marsh, Paul, 1995. " Capital Requirements for Securities Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(3), pages 821-51, July.
  8. Rochet, Jean-Charles, 1992. "Capital requirements and the behaviour of commercial banks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1137-1170, June.
  9. Paul H. Kupiec & James M. O'Brien, 1995. "The use of bank trading risk models for regulatory capital purposes," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-11, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  10. Besanko, David & Kanatas, George, 1996. "The Regulation of Bank Capital: Do Capital Standards Promote Bank Safety?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 160-183, April.
  11. Patricia Jackson & David Maude & William Perraudin, 1998. "Bank Capital and Value at Risk," Bank of England working papers 79, Bank of England.
  12. David Marshall & Subu Venkataraman, 1997. "Bank capital standards for market risk: a welfare analysis," Working Paper Series, Issues in Financial Regulation WP-97-09, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  13. Edward S. Prescott, 1997. "The pre-commitment approach in a model of regulatory banking capital," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Win, pages 23-50.
  14. Paul H. Kupiec & James M. O'Brien, 1995. "Recent developments in bank capital regulation of market risks," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-51, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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Cited by:
  1. Jean-Marc Figuet, 2000. "Le prêteur en dernier ressort international," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 56(1), pages 57-75.
  2. João A. C. Santos, 2000. "Bank capital regulation in contemporary banking theory: a review of the literature," BIS Working Papers 90, Bank for International Settlements.
  3. Jezabel Couppey, 2000. "Vers un nouveau schéma de réglementation prudentielle : une contribution au débat," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 56(1), pages 37-56.
  4. Alistair Milne & A Elizabeth Whalley, 1999. "Bank capital and risk taking," Bank of England working papers 90, Bank of England.
  5. Rochet, Jean-Charles, 1999. "Solvency regulations and the management of banking risks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 981-990, April.

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