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Worker Morale in Russia: An Exploratory Study


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  • Susan J. linz


  • Linda K. Good


  • Patricia Huddleston



Despite unanimous agreement in the existing literature that morale influences employee performance, no well-defined measure of morale exists. Our study develops a robust measure of morale and focuses on the factors that influence morale among Russian workers. Survey data were collected from Russian employees at two different points in time, 1995 and 2002, in five Russian cities. Among the workers participating in our study, expectation of receiving a desired reward contributes to high morale, with expected monetary rewards having a larger influence than expected non-monetary rewards, but praise for a job well done and a feeling of accomplishment also contribute positively to employee morale. There is a significant correlation between positive attitudes toward work and morale, and a positive correlation between performance assessment and morale. Demographic characteristics (age and gender) have no discernable influence on morale when controls are included for work experience.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan in its series William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series with number 816.

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Length: pages
Date of creation: 01 Jan 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2006-816

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Keywords: Morale; Russia; Expected rewards; Motivation; Performance;

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  1. Norsworthy, J R & Zabala, Craig A, 1990. "Worker Attitudes and the Cost of Production: Hypothesis Tests in an Equilibrium Model," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, Western Economic Association International, vol. 28(1), pages 57-78, January.
  2. Bakacsi, Gyula & Sándor, Takács & András, Karácsonyi & Viktor, Imrek, 2002. "Eastern european cluster: tradition and transition," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 69-80, April.
  3. Linz, Susan J, 1995. "Do Job Rights Govern Employment Patterns in Transition Economies?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 85(2), pages 425-31, May.
  4. Gary Krueger & Susan J. Linz, 2000. "Virtual Reality: Barter and Restructuring in Russian Industry," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan 465, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  5. Norsworthy, J. R. & Zabala, C. A., 1982. "A note on introducing a measure of worker attitude in cost function estimation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 185-191.
  6. Susan J. Linz, 2002. "Motivating Russian Workers: Analysis of Age and Gender Differences," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan 466, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  7. Linz, S.J., 1993. "Gender Differences in the Russian Labour Market," Papers, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory 9208, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
  8. Susan J. Linz, 2002. "Job Satisfaction Among Russian Workers," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan 468, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  9. Peter Howitt, 2002. "Looking Inside the Labor Market: A Review Article," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 40(1), pages 125-138, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Linz, Susan J. & Semykina, Anastasia, 2008. "Attitudes and performance: An analysis of Russian workers," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 694-717, April.


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