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Strategic climate policy with offsets and incomplete abatement : carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade

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  • Strand, Jon

Abstract

This paper provides a first analysis of optimal offset policies by a"policy bloc"of fossil fuel importers implementing a climate policy, facing a (non-policy) fringe of other importers, and a bloc of fuel exporters. The policy bloc uses either a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade scheme, jointly with a fully efficient offset mechanism for reducing emissions in the fringe. The policy bloc is then shown to prefer a tax over a cap-and-trade scheme, since 1) a tax extracts more rent as fuel exporters reduce the export price, and more so when the policy bloc is larger relative to the fringe; and 2) offsets are more favorable to the policy bloc under a tax than under a cap-and-trade scheme. The optimal offset price under a carbon tax is half the tax rate; under a cap-and-trade scheme the quota and offset price are equal. The domestic carbon and offset price are both higher under a tax than under a cap-and-trade scheme when the policy bloc is small; when it is larger the offset price can be higher under a cap-and-trade scheme. Fringe countries gain by mitigation in the policy bloc, and more under a carbon tax since the fuel import price is lower, and since the price obtained when selling offsets is often higher (always so for a large fringe).

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5675.

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Date of creation: 01 Jun 2011
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5675

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Keywords: Climate Change Economics; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases; Energy Production and Transportation; Markets and Market Access; Environment and Energy Efficiency;

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References

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  1. Liski, Matti & Tahvonen, Olli, 2004. "Can carbon tax eat OPEC's rents?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-12, January.
  2. van der Ploeg, Frederick & Withagen, Cees, 2012. "Is there really a green paradox?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 342-363.
  3. Rubio, Santiago J. & Escriche, Luisa, 2001. "Strategic pigouvian taxation, stock externalities and polluting non-renewable resources," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 297-313, February.
  4. Berger, Kjell & Fimreite, Oyvind & Golombek, Rolf & Hoel, Michael, 1992. "The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions," Resources and Energy, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 315-336, December.
  5. Wirl, Franz, 2012. "Global warming: Prices versus quantities from a strategic point of view," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 217-229.
  6. Pizer, William A., 2002. "Combining price and quantity controls to mitigate global climate change," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(3), pages 409-434, September.
  7. Strand, Jon, 2010. "Taxes and caps as climate policy instruments with domestic and imported fuels," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5171, The World Bank.
  8. Elin Berg & Snorre Kverndokk & Knut Einar Rosendahl, 1997. "Market Power, International CO2 Taxation and Oil Wealth," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 33-71.
  9. Jon Strand, 2007. "Technology Treaties and Fossil-Fuels Extraction," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 129-142.
  10. Hoel, Michael & Karp, Larry, 2002. "Taxes versus quotas for a stock pollutant," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 367-384, November.
  11. Costello, Christopher & Karp, Larry, 2004. "Dynamic taxes and quotas with learning," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 1661-1680, June.
  12. Rosendahl, Knut Einar & Strand, Jon, 2009. "Simple model frameworks for explaining inefficiency of the clean development mechanism," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4931, The World Bank.
  13. Hans-Werner Sinn, 2007. "Public Policies against Global Warming," NBER Working Papers 13454, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Jon Strand, 2010. "Taxes versus Cap-and-Trade in Climate Policy when only some Fuel Importers Abate," CESifo Working Paper Series 3233, CESifo Group Munich.
  15. Santiago J. Rubio, 2005. "Tariff Agreements And Non-Renewable Resource International Monopolies: Prices Versus Quantitites," Working Papers. Serie AD 2005-10, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
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Cited by:
  1. Knut Einar Rosendahl & Jon Strand, 2012. "Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations," Discussion Papers 719, Research Department of Statistics Norway.

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