Simple model frameworks for explaining inefficiency of the clean development mechanism
AbstractThe Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an offset mechanism designed to reduce the overall cost of implementing a given global target for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in industrialized"Annex B"countries of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper discusses various ways in which CDM projects do not imply full offset of emissions, thus leading to an overall increase in global GHG emissions when considering the Annex-B emissions increase allowed by the offsets. The authors focus on two ways in which this may occur: baseline manipulation; and leakage. Baseline manipulation may result when agents that carry out CDM projects have incentives to increase their initial (or baseline) emissions in order to optimize the value of CDM credits. Leakage occurs because reductions in emissions under a CDM project may affect market equilibrium in local and/or global energy and product markets, and thereby increase emissions elsewhere. Remedies against these problems are discussed. Such remedies are more obvious for the baseline problem (where one is simply to choose an exogenous baseline independent of the project) than for the leakage problem (which is difficult to prevent, and where a prediction of the effect must rely on information about overall market equilibrium effects).
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4931.
Date of creation: 01 May 2009
Date of revision:
Energy Production and Transportation; Environmental Economics&Policies; Environment and Energy Efficiency; Energy and Environment; Transport Economics Policy&Planning;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2009-05-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2009-05-30 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2009-05-30 (Environmental Economics)
- NEP-PPM-2009-05-30 (Project, Program & Portfolio Management)
- NEP-REG-2009-05-30 (Regulation)
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- Strand, Jon, 2011.
"Strategic climate policy with offsets and incomplete abatement : carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
5675, The World Bank.
- Strand, Jon, 2013. "Strategic climate policy with offsets and incomplete abatement: Carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 202-218.
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