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A regime - switching approach to studying speculative attacks : focus on European Monetary System crises

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  • Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez
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    Abstract

    The author uses a regime switching framework to study speculative attacks against European Monetary System (EMS) currencies during 1979-93. She identifies speculative attacks by modeling exchange rates, reserves, and interest rates as time series subject to discrete regime shifts. She assumes two states:"tranquil"and"speculative."She models the probabilities of switching between states as a function of fundamentals and expectations. She concludes that: A) The switching models with time -varying transition probabilities capture most of the conventional episodes of speculative attacks. B) Speculative attacks do not always coincide with currency realignments. C) Both economic fundamentals and expectations determine the likelihood of switching from a period of tranquility to a speculative attack. The budget deficit appears to be an especially important factor driving the probability of switching to a speculative regime. Given the importance of anticipating and, wherever possible, avoiding crises, it might be useful to conduct forecasting exercises to determine whether the switching framework proposed here can be used to forecast crises in countries outside the sample. Because currency crises tend to occur simultaneously in two or more countries, it also might be useful to adapt the regime - switching framework to explore the role of contagion in explaining crises.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2132.

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    Date of creation: 30 Jun 1999
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    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2132

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    Keywords: Payment Systems&Infrastructure; Statistical&Mathematical Sciences; Environmental Economics&Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Fiscal&Monetary Policy; Economic Theory&Research; Economic Stabilization; Environmental Economics&Policies; Macroeconomic Management; Fiscal&Monetary Policy;

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    1. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1986. "Rational and Self-fulfilling Balance-of-Payments Crises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 72-81, March.
    2. Engel, Charles & Hakkio, Craig S, 1996. "The Distribution of Exchange Rates in the EMS," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 55-67, January.
    3. Rose, Andrew K & Svensson, Lars E O, 1993. "European Exchange Rate Credibility Before the Fall," CEPR Discussion Papers 852, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Barry Eichengreen & Andrew K. Rose & Charles Wyplosz, 1995. "Speculative attacks on pegged exchange rates: an empirical exploration with special reference to the European Monetary System," Working Papers in Applied Economic Theory 95-04, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
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    7. Ghysels, Eric, 1994. "On the Periodic Structure of the Business Cycle," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(3), pages 289-98, July.
    8. Maria Soledad Martinez Peria, 1998. "Understanding Devaluations in Latin America: A "Bad Fundamentals" Approach," International Finance 9805004, EconWPA.
    9. Hamilton, James D., 1990. "Analysis of time series subject to changes in regime," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1-2), pages 39-70.
    10. Robert P. Flood & Peter M. Garber, 1981. "Gold monetization and gold discipline," International Finance Discussion Papers 190, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    12. Goldberg, Linda S., 1994. "Predicting exchange rate crises : Mexico revisited," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3-4), pages 413-430, May.
    13. Francesco Caramazza, 1993. "French-German Interest Rate Differentials and Time-Varying Realignment Risk," IMF Working Papers 93/1, International Monetary Fund.
    14. Jeanne, Olivier, 1997. "Are currency crises self-fulfilling?: A test," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3-4), pages 263-286, November.
    15. Flood, Robert P. & Garber, Peter M., 1984. "Collapsing exchange-rate regimes : Some linear examples," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 1-13, August.
    16. Blanco, Herminio & Garber, Peter M, 1986. "Recurrent Devaluation and Speculative Attacks on the Mexican Peso," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(1), pages 148-66, February.
    17. Klein, Michael W. & Marion, Nancy P., 1997. "Explaining the duration of exchange-rate pegs," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 387-404, December.
    18. Zhaohui Chen & Alberto Giovannini, 1993. "The Determinants of Realignment Expectations Under the EMS: Some Empirical Regularities," NBER Working Papers 4291, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Francesco Caramazza, 1993. "French-German Interest Rate Differentials and Time-Varying Realignment Risk," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(3), pages 567-583, September.
    20. Chen, Zhaohui & Giovannini, Alberto, 1993. "The Determinants of Realignment Expectations Under the EMS - Some Empirical Regularities," CEPR Discussion Papers 790, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    Cited by:
    1. Peter Brandner & Harald Grech & Helmut Stix, 2001. "The Effectiveness of Central Bank Intervention in the EMS. The Post 1993 Experience," WIFO Working Papers 168, WIFO.
    2. Peter Brandner & Harald Grech & Helmut Stix, 2001. "The Effectiveness of Central Bank Intervention in the EMS: The Post 1993 Experience," Working Papers 55, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).

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