Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The evolution of poverty and inequality in Indian villages

Contents:

Author Info

  • Jayraman, Raji
  • Lanjouw, Peter

Abstract

The authors review longitudinal village studies from a variety of disciplinary perspectives to identify changes in living standards in rural India in recent decades. They scrutinize the main forces of economic changes--agricultural intensification, changes in land relations, and occupational diversification--to explain changes in level and distribution of living standards in rural communities. These forces of economic change appear to have offset or at least mitigated the pressure that growing populations can place on existing resources. But the decline in rural poverty has been slow and irregular at best. Nor is poverty reduction only a matter of economic development. For instance, the rural poor often attribute much of the improvement in their living conditions to reduced dependence on patrons. There are few reports in village studies of particularly effective government policies aimed at reducing poverty. The long-term poor still tend to be from the disadvantaged castes and to live in households that rely on income from agricultural labor. There is little evidence that inequalities within village communities have declined. In some cases improved material well-being of rural households has led to greater social stratification rather than less, with women and members of lower castes suffering the consequences. Such inequalities could limit how policy interventions or continued growth can reduce poverty further. Policymakers must ensure accountability to keep abuses--for example, the privileged classes directing all benefits tothemselves--to a minimum.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1998/01/01/000009265_3980624090308/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1870.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 31 Jan 1998
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1870

Contact details of provider:
Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Email:
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Municipal Housing and Land; Water Conservation; Environmental Economics&Policies; Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems; Banks&Banking Reform; Land Use and Policies; Environmental Economics&Policies; Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems; Rural Land Policies for Poverty Reduction; Municipal Housing and Land;

Other versions of this item:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Naresh Sharma & Jean Dreze, 1996. "Sharecropping in a North Indian Village," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 1-39.
  2. Baland, Jean-Marie & Dreze, Jean & Leruth, Luc, 1999. "Daily wages and piece rates in agrarian economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 445-461, August.
  3. Bliss, C. J. & Stern, N. H., 1982. "Palanpur: The Economy of an Indian Village," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198284192, September.
  4. Martin Ravallion & Gaurav Datt, 1996. "India's Checkered History in Fight against Poverty: Are There Lessons for the Future?," Development Research Unit Working Paper Series archive-33, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  5. Arindam Banik, 1993. "Structure of the Credit Market and its link with the other Markets-An Analysis of Village Survey Data in Bangladesh," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 28(1), pages 55-71, January.
  6. Lanjouw, Peter & Stern, Nicholas, 1998. "Economic Development in Palanpur over Five Decades," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288329, September.
  7. Bhatia, B,, 1992. "Lush Fields and Parched Throats: The political economy of Growndwater in Gujarat," Research Paper 100, World Institute for Development Economics Research.
  8. Judith Heyer, 1992. "The role of dowries and daughters' marriages in the accumulation and distribution of capital in a South Indian Community," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(4), pages 419-436, 07.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Das Gupta, Monica & Grandvoinnet, Helene & Romani, Mattia, 2000. "State-community synergies in development : laying the basis for collective action," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2439, The World Bank.
  2. V.K. Ramachandran & Madhura Swaminathan & Vikas Rawal, 2001. "How have hired workers fared? A case study of women workers from an Indian village, 1977 to 1999," Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum Working Papers 323, Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum, India.
  3. Hentschel, Jesko, 1998. "Distinguishing between types of data and methods of collecting them," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1914, The World Bank.
  4. Estudillo, Jonna P. & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Otsuka, Keijiro, 2001. "Income distribution in rice-growing villages during the post-Green Revolution periods: the Philippine case, 1985 and 1998," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 25(1), pages 71-84, June.
  5. Krishna, Anirudh, 2004. "Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor: Who Gains, Who Loses, and Why?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 121-136, January.
  6. Peter Lanjouw & Abusaleh Shariff & Dil Bahadur Rahut, 2007. "Rural Non-Farm Employment in India: Access, Income, Farm, Poverty Impact," Working Papers id:913, eSocialSciences.
  7. Parker, Barbara & Kozel, Valerie, 2007. "Understanding Poverty and Vulnerability in India's Uttar Pradesh and Bihar: A Q-squared Approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 296-311, February.
  8. John Sender, 2000. "Struggles To Escape Poverty In South Africa: Results From A Purposive Rural Survey," Working Papers 107, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK.
  9. Kapur Mehta, Aasha & Shah, Amita, 2003. "Chronic Poverty in India: Incidence, Causes and Policies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 491-511, March.
  10. Anirudh Krishna, 2005. "Poverty Knowledge and Poverty Action: Evidence from Three States in India," Working Papers id:274, eSocialSciences.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1870. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.