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Job creation under liquidity constraints: The Spanish case

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  • Silvio Rendón

Abstract

This paper shows that liquidity constraints restrict job creation even when labor markets are flexible. In a dynamic model of labor demand, I show that in an environment of imperfect capital and imperfect labor markets, firms use temporary contracts to relax financial constraints. Evidence for the predictions of the model is presented using Spanish data from the CBBE (Central de Balances del Banco de España - Balance Sheet data from the Bank of Spain). It is shown that firms substitute temporary labor for permanent one and use less debt as their financial position improves. In particular, it is rejected that Spanish firms operate in an environment of free capital markets and of no labor adjustment costs. The labor reform of 1984, which created temporary contracts, implied to some extent a relaxation of liquidity constraints. Accordingly, firms used these contracts more extensively and used less debt; however, as capital markets continue to be imperfect, permanent job creation continues to be slow. Consequently, relaxation of liquidity constraints should also be part of a job creation strategy.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra in its series Economics Working Papers with number 488.

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Date of creation: Jul 2000
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Handle: RePEc:upf:upfgen:488

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Web page: http://www.econ.upf.edu/

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Keywords: Job creation; employment; investment; adjustment costs; liquidity constraints;

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  1. Caballero, Ricardo J., 1999. "Aggregate investment," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 813-862 Elsevier.
  2. Alonso-Borrego, Cesar & Bentolila, Samuel, 1994. "Investment and Q in Spanish Manufacturing Firms," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 56(1), pages 49-65, February.
  3. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  4. Victor Aguirregabiria & Cesar Alonso-Borrego, 2009. "Labor Contracts and Flexibility: Evidence from a Labor Market Reform in Spain," Working Papers tecipa-346, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  5. Sangeeta Pratap & Silvio Rendon, 2003. "Firm Investment in Imperfect Capital Markets: A Structural Estimation," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 6(3), pages 513-545, July.
  6. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
  7. Greenwald, Bruce & Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1984. "Informational Imperfections in the Capital Market and Macroeconomic Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 194-99, May.
  8. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Raquel Fonseca & Natalia Utrero González, 2004. "Do Market Regulation and Financial Imperfections Affect Firm Size? New Empirical Evidence," CSEF Working Papers 119, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  2. Raquel Fonseca & Natalia Utrero, 2005. "Financial Development, Labor and Market Regulations and Growth," Documents de recherche 05-05, Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne.
  3. Donatella Gatti & Christophe Rault & Anne-Gael Vaubourg, 2010. "Unemployment and finance: how do financial and labour market factors interact?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp973, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  4. repec:hal:psewpa:halshs-00566792 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00566792 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Josep Tribo, 2005. "An analysis of the length of labour and financial contracts: a study for Spain," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(8), pages 905-916.
  7. José Ignacio García Pérez & Yolanda Rebollo Sanz, 2005. "A Structural Estimation to Evaluate the Wage Penalty after Unemployment in Europe," Economic Working Papers at Centro de Estudios Andaluces E2005/15, Centro de Estudios Andaluces.

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