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Identifying Fiscal Space:Options for Social and Economic Development for Children and Poor Households in 184 Countries

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Author Info

  • Isabel Ortiz
  • Jingqing Chai
  • Matthew Cummins

    (Division of Policy and Practice,UNICEF)

Abstract

It is often argued that social and economic investments that benefit children and poor households are not affordable or that government expenditure cuts are inevitable during adjustment periods. But there are alternatives, even in the poorest countries. This working paper offers an array of options that can be explored to expand fiscal space. These include: (i) re-allocating public expenditures, (ii) increasing tax revenues, (iii) lobbying for increased aid and transfers, (iv) tapping into fiscal and foreign exchange reserves, (v) borrowing and restructuring existing debt, and /or (vi) adpoting a more accommodative macroeconomic framework. To serve as a general advocacy resource, the annex provides a summary of the latest fiscal space indicators for 184 countries.

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File URL: http://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/Fiscal_Space_-_REVISED_Dec_2011.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy in its series Working papers with number 1108.

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Length: 66 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uce:wpaper:1108

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Web page: http://www.unicef.org

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Web: http://www.unicef.org/publications/socialpolicy

Related research

Keywords: fiscal space; fiscal consolidation; public expenditures; social spending; crisis recovery; development policy; equity; tax revenues; foreign reserves; official development assistance; government borrowing; debt; expansionary fiscal and monetary policy;

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References

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  1. Ephraim W. Chirwa & Montfort Mlachila & Yohane Anthony Khamfula, 2006. "Donor Herding and Domestic Debt Crisis," IMF Working Papers 06/109, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Emmanuel Frot & Javier Santiso, 2009. "Herding in Aid Allocation," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 279, OECD Publishing.
  3. Andrea Vaona & Stefano Schiavo, 2005. "Nonparametric and semiparametric evidence on the long-run effects of inflation on growth," Department of Economics Working Papers 0520, Department of Economics, University of Trento, Italia.
  4. Dang, Hai-Anh & Knack, Steve & Rogers, Halsey, 2009. "International aid and financial crises in donor countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5162, The World Bank.
  5. Isabel Ortiz, 2007. "Social Policy," Policy Notes 6, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  6. Ardeshir Sepehri & Saeed Moshiri, 2004. "Inflation-Growth Profiles Across Countries: Evidence from Developing and Developed Countries," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 191-207.
  7. Raphael A. Espinoza & Ananthakrishnan Prasad & H. L. Leon, 2010. "Estimating the Inflation-Growth Nexus," IMF Working Papers 10/76, International Monetary Fund.
  8. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Global Inequality: Beyond the Bottom Billion – A Rapid Review of Income Distribution in 141 Countries," Working papers 1102, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
  9. Isabel Ortiz & Jingqing Chai & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Escalating Food Prices: The threat to poor households and policies to safeguard a Recovery for All," Working papers 1101, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
  10. Lora, Eduardo & Olivera, Mauricio, 2007. "Public debt and social expenditure: Friends or foes?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 299-310, December.
  11. Rob Gregory & Christian Henn & Brad Mcdonald & Mika Saito, 2010. "Trade And The Crisis: Protect Or Recover," Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy (JICEP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 1(02), pages 165-181.
  12. Richard C.K. Burdekin & Arthur T. Denzau & Manfred W. Keil & Thitithep Sitthiyot & Thomas D. Willett, . "When Does Inflation Hurt Economic Growth? Different Nonlinearities for Different Economies," Claremont Colleges Working Papers 2000-22, Claremont Colleges.
  13. Dilip Ratha, 2006. "Leveraging remittances for development," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, pages 173-185.
  14. Gylfason, Thorvaldur & Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor, 1996. "Does Inflation Matter for Growth?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1503, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Ugo Panizza, 2008. "Domestic And External Public Debt In Developing Countries," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 188, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
  16. Kevin Gallagher & Roberto Porzecanski, 2009. "China and the Latin America Commodities Boom: A Critical Assessment," Working Papers wp192, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
  17. Bick, Alexander, 2010. "Threshold effects of inflation on economic growth in developing countries," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 126-129, August.
  18. Stephanie Kremer & Alexander Bick & Dieter Nautz, 2009. "Inflation and Growth: New Evidence From a Dynamic Panel Threshold Analysis," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2009-036, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  19. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2011. "Austerity Measures Threaten Children and Poor Households: Recent Evidence in Public Expenditures from 128 Developing Countries," Working papers 1107, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.
  20. Max Gillman & Mark N. Harris & László Mátyás, 2004. "Inflation and growth: Explaining a negative effect," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 149-167, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Isabel Ortiz & Matthew Cummins, 2012. "DESIGUALDAD GLOBAL:La distribución del ingreso en 141 países," Working papers 1104, UNICEF,Division of Policy and Strategy.

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