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The Evolution of Male-Female Wages Differentials in Canadian Universities: 1970-2001

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Author Info

  • Casey Warman

    ()
    (Queen's University, Department of Economics, Statistics Canada)

  • Frances Woolley

    (Carleton University, Department of Economics)

  • Christopher Worswick

    (Carleton University, Department of Economics)

Abstract

In this paper, we use a unique data set containing detailed information on all full-time teachers at Canadian universities over the period 1970 through 2001. The individual level data are collected by Statistics Canada from all universities in Canada and are used to analyze the evolution of male-female wage differentials of professors in Canadian universities. The long time series aspect of this data source along with the detailed administrative information allow us to provide a more complete and more accurate portrait of the wage gap than is available in most other studies. The results of a cohort-based analysis indicate that the male salary advantage among university faculty has declined for more recent birth cohorts. This has been driven not so much by an increase in the real salaries of female professors but from a cross cohort decline in the earnings of male professors and the fact that female professors have not experienced a similar cross cohort decline. Also important to note is the fact that the differences across cohorts appear to be permanent. There is no clear pattern of changes in these cohort differences with age.

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File URL: http://qed.econ.queensu.ca/working_papers/papers/qed_wp_1099.pdf
File Function: First version 2006
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Queen's University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 1099.

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Length: 50 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:qed:wpaper:1099

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Keywords: gender; earnings; Canada; professors; faculty;

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References

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  1. Michael Baker & Nicole M. Fortin, 1999. "Women's Wages in Women's Work: A US/Canada Comparison of the Roles of Unions and Public Goods Sector Jobs," CIRANO Working Papers 99s-02, CIRANO.
  2. Marie Drolet, 2002. "Can the workplace explain Canadian gender pay differentials?," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 75-77.
  3. Nicole M. Fortin & Michael Huberman, 2002. "Occupational Gender Segregation and Women's Wages in Canada: An Historical Perspective," CIRANO Working Papers 2002s-22, CIRANO.
  4. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
  5. Ward-Warmedinger, Melanie E., 1999. "Salary and the Gender Salary Gap in the Academic Profession," IZA Discussion Papers 64, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Debra A. Barbezat, 1987. "Salary Differentials by Sex in the Academic Labor Market," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 22(3), pages 422-428.
  7. Blackaby, David & Booth, Alison L & Frank, Jeff, 2002. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3549, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Paul Beaudry & David Green, 1997. "Cohort Patterns in Canadian Earnings: Assessing the Role of Skill Premia in Inequality Trends," NBER Working Papers 6132, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Larry D. Singell & John M. McDowell & James P. Ziliak, 1999. "Cracks in the Glass Ceiling: Gender and Promotion in the Economics Profession," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 392-396, May.
  10. Booth, Alison & Jeff Frank & David Blackaby, 2003. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK Academic Labour Market," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 28, Royal Economic Society.
  11. Claudia Goldin, 2002. "The Rising (and then Declining) Significance of Gender," NBER Working Papers 8915, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Kunze, Astrid, 2002. "The Evolution of the Early Career Gender Wage Gap," CEPR Discussion Papers 3242, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Formby, John P & Gunther, William D & Sakano, Ryoichi, 1993. "Entry Level Salaries of Academic Economists: Does Gender or Age Matter?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(1), pages 128-38, January.
  14. Broder, Ivy E, 1993. "Professional Achievements and Gender Differences among Academic Economists," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(1), pages 116-27, January.
  15. Marie Drolet, 2002. "Can the Workplace Explain Canadian Gender Pay Differentials?," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 28(s1), pages 41-63, May.
  16. Barbezat, Debra A., 1991. "Updating estimates of male-female salary differentials in the academic labor market," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 191-195, June.
  17. Drolet, Marie, 2001. "The Persistent Gap: New Evidence on the Canadian Gender Wage Gap," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2001157e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  18. Melanie Ward, 2001. "The gender salary gap in British academia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(13), pages 1669-1681.
  19. Sharon M. Oster & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 1998. "Aging And Productivity Among Economists," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 154-156, February.
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Cited by:
  1. Felice Martinello, 2009. "Faculty Salaries in Ontario: Compression, Inversion, and the Effects of Alternative Forms of Representation," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 63(1), pages 128, October.

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