The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception and the Gender Gap in Wages
AbstractDecades of research on the U.S. gender gap in wages describes its correlates, but little is known about why women changed their career paths in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper explores the role of “the Pill” in altering women’s human capital investments and its ultimate implications for life-cycle wages. Using state-by-birth-cohort variation in legal access, we show that younger access to the Pill conferred an 8-percent hourly wage premium by age fifty. Our estimates imply that the Pill can account for 10 percent of the convergence of the gender gap in the 1980s and 30 percent in the 1990s.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 17922.
Date of creation: Mar 2012
Date of revision:
Note: CH DAE ED LS
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- Martha J. Bailey & Brad Hershbein & Amalia R. Miller, 2012. "The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception and the Gender Gap in Wages," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 225-54, July.
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
- N32 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - U.S.; Canada: 1913-
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-04-03 (All new papers)
- NEP-DEM-2012-04-03 (Demographic Economics)
- NEP-LAB-2012-04-03 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-LMA-2012-04-03 (Labor Markets - Supply, Demand, & Wages)
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- Martha J. Bailey, 2013.
"Fifty Years of Family Planning: New Evidence on the Long-Run Effects of Increasing Access to Contraception,"
NBER Working Papers
19493, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Martha J. Bailey, 2013. "Fifty Years of Family Planning: New Evidence on the Long-Run Effects of Increasing Access to Contraception," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 46(1 (Spring), pages 341-409.
- Martha J. Bailey & Melanie E. Guldi & Brad J. Hershbein, 2013.
"Is There A Case for a "Second Demographic Transition"? Three Distinctive Features of the Post-1960 U.S. Fertility Decline,"
NBER Working Papers
19599, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Martha J. Bailey & Melanie Guldi & Brad J. Hershbein, 2013. "Is There a Case for a "Second Demographic Transition"? Three Distinctive Features of the Post-1960 U.S. Fertility Decline," NBER Chapters, in: Human Capital in History: The American Record National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Machado, Cecilia, 2012. "Selection, Heterogeneity and the Gender Wage Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 7005, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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