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Which Immigrants Are Most Innovative and Entrepreneurial? Distinctions by Entry Visa

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  • Jennifer Hunt

Abstract

Using the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, I examine how immigrants perform relative to natives in activities likely to increase U.S. productivity, according to the type of visa on which they first entered the United States. Immigrants who first entered on a student/trainee visa or a temporary work visa have a large advantage over natives in wages, patenting, commercializing or licensing patents, and publishing. In general, this advantage is explained by immigrants' higher education and field of study, but this is not the case for publishing, and immigrants are more likely to start companies than natives with similar education. Immigrants without U.S. education and who arrived at older ages suffer a wage handicap, which offsets savings to the United States from their having completed more education abroad. Immigrants who entered with legal permanent residence do not outperform natives for any of the outcomes considered.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 14920.

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Date of creation: Apr 2009
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Publication status: published as Jennifer Hunt, 2011. "Which Immigrants Are Most Innovative and Entrepreneurial? Distinctions by Entry Visa," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(3), pages 417 - 457.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14920

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  1. Sweetman, Arthur & Warman, Casey, 2009. "Temporary Foreign Workers and Former International Students as a Source of Permanent Immigration," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2009-34, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 22 Jun 2009.
  2. William R. Kerr, 2007. "The Ethnic Composition of US Inventors," Harvard Business School Working Papers 08-006, Harvard Business School.
  3. William R. Kerr & William F. Lincoln, 2010. "The Supply Side of Innovation: H-1B Visa Reforms and U.S. Ethnic Invention," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(3), pages 473-508, 07.
  4. Guillermina Jasso & Mark R. Rosenzweig & James P. Smith, 2000. "The Changing Skill of New Immigrants to the United States: Recent Trends and Their Determinants," NBER Chapters, in: Issues in the Economics of Immigration, pages 185-226 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Hunt, Jennifer & Gauthier-Loiselle, Marjolaine, 2009. "How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation?," IZA Discussion Papers 3921, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Paserman, Daniele, 2008. "Do High-Skill Immigrants Raise Productivity? Evidence from Israeli Manufacturing Firms, 1990-1999," IZA Discussion Papers 3572, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. George J. Borjas, 2006. "Immigration in High-Skill Labor Markets: The Impact of Foreign Students on the Earnings of Doctorates," NBER Working Papers 12085, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. George J. Borjas, 1994. "Assimilation and Changes in Cohort Quality Revisited: What Happened to Immigrant Earnings in the 1980s?," NBER Working Papers 4866, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2004. "Language Skills and Earnings: Evidence from Childhood Immigrants," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 481-496, May.
  10. Peri, Giovanni & Sparber, Chad, 2010. "Highly-Educated Immigrants and Native Occupational Choice," Working Papers 2010-09, Department of Economics, Colgate University.
  11. Akee, Randall K. Q. & Yuksel, Mutlu, 2008. "A Note on Measures of Human Capital for Immigrants: Examining the American Community Survey and New Immigrant Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 3897, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Darren Lubotsky, 2007. "Chutes or Ladders? A Longitudinal Analysis of Immigrant Earnings," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 115(5), pages 820-867, October.
  13. Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, 2007. "Accelerating Decline in America's High-Skilled Workforce: Implications for Immigration Policy," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number pa84.
  14. Borjas, George, 2002. "An Evaluation of the Foreign Student Program," Working Paper Series rwp02-026, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  15. Joseph Schaafsma & Arthur Sweetman, 2001. "Immigrant earnings: age at immigration matters," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(4), pages 1066-1099, November.
  16. Morgan, Robert P & Kruytbosch, Carlos & Kannankutty, Nirmala, 2001. " Patenting and Invention Activity of U.S. Scientists and Engineers in the Academic Sector: Comparisons with Industry," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 173-83, January.
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  1. Which Immigrants Are Most Innovative and Entrepreneurial? Distinctions by Entry Visa
    by Ariel Goldring in Free Market Mojo on 2010-03-04 10:21:40
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