Migration, Cultural Diversity and Innovation: A European Perspective
AbstractThis paper analyses the effect of skilled migration on two measures of innovation, patenting and citations of scientific publications, in a panel of 20 European countries. Skilled migrants positively contribute to the knowledge formation in host countries as they add to the pool of skills in destination markets. Moreover, they positively affect natives' productivity, as new ideas are likely to arise through the interaction of diverse cultures and diverse approaches in problem solving. The empirical findings we present support this prediction. Greater diversity in the skilled professions are associated with higher levels of knowledge creation, measured either by the number of patents applied for through the Patent Cooperation Treaty or by the number of citations to published articles. This finding is robust to the use of different proxies for both the explanatory variables and the diversity index in the labour force. Specifically, we first measure diversity with a novel indicator which uses information on the skill level of foreigners’ occupations. We then check our results by following the general literature, which measures skills by looking at the foreigners’ level of education. We show that cultural diversity consistently increases the innovation performance of European Countries. Keywords: cultural diversity, innovation, skilled migration, knowledge production function, Europe JEL: F22, J24, O31
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University in its series Working Papers with number 469.
Date of creation: 2012
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Other versions of this item:
- Valentina Bosetti & Cristina Cattaneo & Elena Verdolini, 2012. "Migration, Cultural Diversity and Innovation: A European Perspective," Working Papers 2012.69, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- O31 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-01-19 (All new papers)
- NEP-EUR-2013-01-19 (Microeconomic European Issues)
- NEP-INO-2013-01-19 (Innovation)
- NEP-KNM-2013-01-19 (Knowledge Management & Knowledge Economy)
- NEP-MIG-2013-01-19 (Economics of Human Migration)
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