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Low-Skilled Unemployment, Biased Technological Shocks and Job Competition

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  • Pierrard, Olivier

    ()
    (Central Bank of Luxembourg)

  • Sneessens, Henri R.

    ()
    (University of Luxembourg)

Abstract

The unemployment rise in EU countries has been particularly strong for low-skilled workers. This observation has often been explained in terms of biased technical change and relative wage rigidities. More attention has been paid recently to an alternative mechanism, the crowding-out of low-skilled workers by over-qualified workers. The objective of this paper is both methodological and empirical. We construct a dynamic general equilibrium model with two types of jobs and two types of workers and with search unemployment. The model is calibrated and simulated to examine the interactions between the “skill bias” and “crowdingout” mechanisms. When such interactions are accounted for, the model reproduces quite well the observed unemployment changes.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 784.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: May 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp784

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Related research

Keywords: skill bias; crowding out; over-education; equilibrium search unemployment; ladder effect;

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References

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  1. Acemoglu, D., 1997. "Why Do New Technologies Complement Skills? Directed Technical Change and Wage Inequality," Working papers 97-14, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  2. Stephen Machin & John Van Reenen, 1998. "Technology and changes in skill structure: evidence from seven OECD countries," IFS Working Papers W98/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Acemoglu, D., 1996. "Changes in Unemployment and Wage Inequality: An Alternative Theory and Some Evidence," Working papers 96-15, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  4. Gautier, P.A. & Berg, G. van den & Ours, J.C. van & Ridder, G., 2002. "Worker turnover at the firm level and crowding out of lower educated workers," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-91480, Tilburg University.
  5. Bat COCKX & Muriel DEJEMEPPE, 2002. "Do the Higher Educated Unemployed Crowd out the Lower Educated Ones in a Competition for Jobs ?," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2002020, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  6. Manacorda, Marco & Petrongolo, Barbara, 1999. "Skill Mismatch and Unemployment in OECD Countries," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 66(262), pages 181-207, May.
  7. Mortensen, Dale T & Pissarides, Christopher A, 1999. "Unemployment Responses to 'Skill-Biased' Technology Shocks: The Role of Labour Market Policy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(455), pages 242-65, April.
  8. E Berman & J Bound & Stephen Machin, 1997. "Implications of Skill-Biased Technological Change: International Evidence," CEP Discussion Papers dp0367, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
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  13. Merz, Monika, 1995. "Search in the labor market and the real business cycle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 269-300, November.
  14. Dolado, Juan J. & Felgueroso, Florentino & Jimeno, Juan F., 2000. "Youth labour markets in Spain: Education, training, and crowding-out," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(4-6), pages 943-956, May.
  15. Paul Beaudry & David Green, 1998. "What is Driving US and Canadian Wages: Exogenous Technical Change or Endogenous Choice of Technique?," NBER Working Papers 6853, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Juan J. Dolado & Marcel Jansen & Juan F. Jimeno, . "A Matching Model of Crowding-Out and On-the-Job Search (with an application to Spain)," Working Papers 2002-16, FEDEA.
  17. James Albrecht & Susan Vroman, 2002. "A Matching Model with Endogenous Skill Requirements," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 43(1), pages 283-305, February.
  18. Van der Linden, Bruno & Dor, Eric, 2001. "Labor Market Policies and Equilibrium Employment : Theory and Application for Belgium," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2001005, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  19. Hartog, Joop, 2000. "Over-education and earnings: where are we, where should we go?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 131-147, April.
  20. Pieter A. Gautier, 1999. "Unemployment and Search Externalities in a Model with Heterogeneous Jobs and Heterogeneous Workers," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-075/3, Tinbergen Institute.
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