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How Immigrants Fare Across the Earnings Distribution: International Analyses

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Author Info

  • Chiswick, Barry R.

    ()
    (George Washington University)

  • Le, Anh T.

    ()
    (Curtin University of Technology)

  • Miller, Paul W.

    (Curtin University of Technology)

Abstract

This paper applies the quantile regression methodology to the study of the determinants of the distribution of earnings among the native born and immigrants in the United States and Australia. The analysis for immigrants is performed separately for those from English-speaking and non-English speaking origins. Using Census data, the quantile regressions permit the measurement of the partial effect of explanatory variables (such as schooling and experience) and the native born-immigrant earnings differential at the different deciles of the earnings distribution. Among other findings, the effects on earnings of schooling and labor market experience are shown to increase at higher deciles. The native-immigrant earnings gap varies by decile, and in particular increases in the U.S. at higher deciles. Minimum wages in the U.S. appear to compress earnings at low deciles, while the Australian minimum (administered) wage system appears to compress earnings across the distribution of earnings.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2405.

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Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 2008, 61 (3), 353-373
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2405

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Keywords: quantile regression; rates of return; immigrants; earnings distributions;

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References

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  1. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
  2. Heather Antecol & Deborah A. Cobb-Clark & Stephen J. Trejo, 2003. "Immigration Policy and the Skills of Immigrants to Australia, Canada, and the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 38(1).
  3. Bedard, Kelly, 2003. "School quality and the distribution of male earnings in Canada," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 395-407, August.
  4. Anh T. Le & Paul W. Miller, 2004. "Inter-Temporal Decompositions of Labour Market and Social Outcomes," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(1), pages 10-20, 03.
  5. Eric R. Eide & Mark H. Showalter & David P. Sims, 2002. "The Effects Of Secondary School Quality On The Distribution Of Earnings," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 20(2), pages 160-170, 04.
  6. Martins, Pedro S. & Pereira, Pedro T., 2004. "Does education reduce wage inequality? Quantile regression evidence from 16 countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 355-371, June.
  7. Angel López-Nicolás & Jaume García & Pedro J. Hernández, 2001. "How wide is the gap? An investigation of gender wage differences using quantile regression," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 149-167.
  8. Harriet Duleep & Mark Regets, 1997. "Measuring immigrant wage growth using matched CPS files," Demography, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 239-249, May.
  9. Eide, Eric & Showalter, Mark H., 1998. "The effect of school quality on student performance: A quantile regression approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 345-350, March.
  10. Kalena E. Cortes, 2004. "Are Refugees Different from Economic Immigrants? Some Empirical Evidence on the Heterogeneity of Immigrant Groups in the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 465-480, May.
  11. Moshe Buchinsky, 1998. "The dynamics of changes in the female wage distribution in the USA: a quantile regression approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(1), pages 1-30.
  12. José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
  13. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  14. Kristin F. Butcher & John DiNardo, 1998. "The Immigrant and Native-born Wage Distributions: Evidence from United States Censuses," NBER Working Papers 6630, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Heather Antecol & Peter Kuhn & Stephen J. Trejo, 2006. "Assimilation via Prices or Quantities?: Sources of Immigrant Earnings Growth in Australia, Canada, and the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(4).
  16. James Albrecht & Anders Bjorklund & Susan Vroman, 2003. "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 145-177, January.
  17. Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
  18. Cortes, Kalena E., 2004. "Are Refugees Different from Economic Immigrants? Some Empirical Evidence on the Heterogeneity of Immigrant Groups in the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 1063, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  19. Antecol, Heather & Kuhn, Peter J. & Trejo, Stephen, 2003. "Assimilation via Prices or Quantities? Labor Market Institutions and Immigrant Earnings Growth in Australia, Canada, and the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 802, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. Paul W. Miller & Leanne M. Neo, 2003. "Labour Market Flexibility and Immigrant Adjustment," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 79(246), pages 336-356, 09.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Catalina Franco Buitrago, 2010. "Latin American Immigration in the United States: Is There Wage Assimilation Across the Wage Distribution?," ARCHIVOS DE ECONOMÍA 006447, DEPARTAMENTO NACIONAL DE PLANEACIÓN.
  2. Hunt, Priscillia, 2008. "Are immigrants so stuck to the floor that the ceiling is irrelevant?," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 838, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  3. Kohler, Pierre, 2012. "Three essays on the economic and cultural integration of migrants in Switzerland: putting into perspective the influence of economic discrimination and of host society culture," MPRA Paper 38129, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Pia M. Orrenius & Madeline Zavodny, 2008. "The effect of minimum wages on immigrants' employment and earnings," Working Papers 0805, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
  5. James T. Bang & Aniruddha Mitra, 2009. "Brain Drain and Institutions of Governance: Educational Attainment of Immigrants to the US 1988-2000," Middlebury College Working Paper Series 0919, Middlebury College, Department of Economics.
  6. Kahanec, Martin & Zaiceva, Anzelika, 2008. "Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants and Non-Citizens in the EU: An East-West Comparison," IZA Discussion Papers 3420, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Kahanec, Martin & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2008. "Migration, the Quality of the Labour Force and Economic Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 3560, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Lozano, Fernando A. & Steinberger, Michael D., 2010. "Empirical Methods in the Economics of International Immigration," IZA Discussion Papers 5328, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Pierre Kohler, 2012. "The Effect of Host Society Culture on Migrant Wage Discrimination: Approaching the Roestigraben," IHEID Working Papers 08-2012, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
  10. Kahanec, Martin & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2008. "International Migration, Ethnicity and Economic Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 3450, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Bang, James T. & Mitra, Aniruddha, 2011. "Brain drain and institutions of governance: Educational attainment of immigrants to the US 1988-1998," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 335-354, September.
  12. Raquel Carrasco & Juan F. Jimeno & Ana Carolina Ortega, 2008. "The impact of immigration on the wage structure : Spain 1995-2002," Economics Working Papers we080603, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía.

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