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The Persistent Gender Earnings Gap in Colombia, 1994-2006

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  • Alejandro Hoyos
  • Hugo Nopo

    ()

  • Ximena Pena

Abstract

This paper surveys gender wage gaps in Colombia from 1994 to 2006, using matching comparisons to examine the extent to which individuals with similar human capital characteristics earn different wages. Three sub-periods are considered: 1994-1998; 2000- 2001; and 2002- 2006. The gaps dropped from the first to the second period but remained almost unchanged between the second and the third. The gender wage gap remains largely unexplained after controlling for different combinations of socio-demographics and job-related characteristics, reaching between 13 and 23 percent of average female wages. That gap is lower at the middle of the wage distributions than the extremes, possibly due to a gender-equalizing effect of the minimum wage. Moreover, the gap is more pronounced for low-productivity workers and those who need flexibility to participate in labor markets. This suggests that policy interventions in the form of labor market regulations may have little impact on reducing gender wage gaps.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4673.

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Date of creation: May 2010
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4673

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Keywords: Gender; Ethnicity; Wage gaps; Latin America; Colombia; Matching;

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References

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  1. Alejandro Badel & Ximena Peña, 2010. "Decomposing the GenderWage Gap with Sample Selection Adjustment: Evidence from Colombia," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 007725, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  2. Adriana Camacho & Emily Conover & Alejandro Hoyos, 2009. "Effects of Colombia's Social Protection System on Workers' Choice between Formal and Informal Employment," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 006003, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  3. Diego F. Angel-Urdinola & Quentin Wodon, 2006. "The Gender Wage Gap and Poverty in Colombia," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 20(4), pages 721-739, December.
  4. Luisa Fernanda Bernat, 2009. "¿Quienes son las mujeres discriminadas?: enfoque distributivo de las diferencias salariales por género," BORRADORES DE ECONOMÍA Y FINANZAS 005242, UNIVERSIDAD ICESI.
  5. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much?," Discussion Papers 04-030, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  6. Llorens, Vanessa & De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara & Dolado, Juan J., 2004. "Ceilings and Floors? Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain," DFAEII Working Papers 2005-01, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
  7. Albrecht, James & Björklund, Anders & Vroman, Susan, 2001. "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?," IZA Discussion Papers 282, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Luis Fernando Gamboa & Blanca Zuluaga, 2011. "Is there a motherhood penalty? Decomposing the family wage gap in Colombia," Working Papers 220, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  2. Karolina Goraus & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2013. "The Goodwill Effect? Female Access to the Labor Market Over Transition: A Multicountry Analysis," Working Papers 2013-19, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
  3. Nancy Daza & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2013. "An approximation to the Informal-formal wage gap in Colombia 2008-2012," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 010990, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
  4. Sara de la Rica & Luz Karime Abadía Alvarado, 2011. "Changes in the Gender Wage Gap and the Role of Education and Other Job Characteristics: Colombia 1994-2010," VNIVERSITAS ECONÓMICA 010088, UNIVERSIDAD JAVERIANA - BOGOTÁ.
  5. Juan Camilo Cárdenas & Hugo Ñopo & Jorge Luis Castañeda, 2012. "Equidad en la Diferencia: Políticas para la Movilidad Social de Grupos de Identidad. Misión de Movilidad Social y Equidad," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 010319, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  6. Laura Cepeda Emiliani & Juan D. Barón, 2012. "Educational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap for Recent College Graduates in Colombia," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 009382, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  7. Juan Byron Correa Fonnegra & Carlos Augusto Viáfara López & Víctor Hugo Zuluaga González, 2011. "Desigualdad étnico-racial en la distribución del ingreso en Colombia: Un análisis a partir de Regresión Cuantílica," REVISTA SOCIEDAD Y ECONOMIA - CIDSE, UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE - CIDSE.
  8. Isabelle Joumard & Juliana Londoño Vélez, 2013. "Income Inequality and Poverty in Colombia - Part 1. The Role of the Labour Market," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1036, OECD Publishing.
  9. Nancy Daza & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2013. "Informal-formal wage gaps in Colombia," Working Papers 301, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  10. Juan Barón, 2012. "First job experiences of Colombian college graduates: probability of formal employment and wages," Lecturas de Economía, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, issue 76, pages 55-86.
  11. Alejandro Badel & Ximena Peña, 2010. "Decomposing the GenderWage Gap with Sample Selection Adjustment: Evidence from Colombia," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 007725, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
  12. Ana María Iregui B. & Ligia Alba Melo B. Author-Email:lmelobec@banrep.gov.co & María Teresa Ranírez G., . "Wage differentials across economic sectors in the Colombian formal labour market: evidence from a survey of firms," Borradores de Economia 629, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

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