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Gender Inequality and Emigration: Push factor or Selection process?

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Author Info

  • Thierry Baudassé

    ()
    (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans)

  • Rémi Bazillier

    ()
    (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans)

Abstract

Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then increase female migration. We build several original indices of gender equality using principal component analysis. Our empirical results show that the push factor hypothesis is clearly rejected. All else held constant, improving gender equality in the workplace is positively correlated with the migration of women, especially of the high-skilled. We observe the opposite e ffect for low-skilled men. This result is robust to several speci cations and to various measurements of gender equality.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by HAL in its series Working Papers with number hal-00829526.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2012
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Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-00829526

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Keywords: Migration ; Gender Inequality ; core labor standards;

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References

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  1. Busse, Matthias & Spielmann, Christian, 2004. "Gender Inequality and Trade," HWWA Discussion Papers 308, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  2. Lagerlof, Nils-Petter, 2003. " Gender Equality and Long-Run Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 403-26, December.
  3. Lundberg, S.J.Startz, R., 1994. "On the Persistence of Racial Inequality," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington, Department of Economics at the University of Washington 94-07, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
  4. Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., 2003. "What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?," Working Paper Series, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER) UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  5. Herbert Brücker & Philipp J.H. Schroeder, 2011. "International Migration with Heterogeneous Agents: Theory and Evidence for Germany, 1967-2009," Norface Discussion Paper Series, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London 2011027, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
  6. Seguino, Stephanie, 2000. "Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1211-1230, July.
  7. Stephan Klasen & Francesca Lamanna, 2009. "The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth: New Evidence for a Panel of Countries," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 91-132.
  8. Steven N. Durlauf, 1992. "A Theory of Persistent Income Inequality," NBER Working Papers 4056, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Dumont, Jean-Christophe & Martin, John P. & Spielvogel, Gilles, 2007. "Women on the Move: The Neglected Gender Dimension of the Brain Drain," IZA Discussion Papers 2920, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. William A. Darity & Patrick L. Mason, 1998. "Evidence on Discrimination in Employment: Codes of Color, Codes of Gender," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 63-90, Spring.
  11. Frédéric Docquier & B. Lindsay Lowell & Abdeslam Marfouk, 2009. "A Gendered Assessment of Highly Skilled Emigration," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., The Population Council, Inc., vol. 35(2), pages 297-321.
  12. Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-18, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Maryam Naghsh Nejad & Andrew T. Young, 2014. "Female Brain Drains and Women's Rights Gaps : A Gravity Model Analysis of Bilateral Migration Flows," Working Papers 14-10, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
  2. Naghsh Nejad, Maryam, 2013. "Institutionalized Inequality and Brain Drain: An Empirical Study of the Effects of Women's Rights on the Gender Gap in High-Skilled Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 7864, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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