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Measuring educational inequalities:A method and an application to Albania

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  • Nathalie Picard

    ()
    (THEMA, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, France and INED, Paris, France.)

  • François-Charles Wolff

    ()
    (LEN, Université de Nantes, BP 52231 Chemin de la Censive du Tertre, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3, France; CNAV and INED, Paris, France.)

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate whether educational inequalities stem rather from differences between families or within families. In a poor economy, schooling is costly for parents and education is likely to be unequally distributed among siblings. Drawing on discrete ordered choice models, we present a simple method to estimate the between and within components of both the explained and unexplained variances of education. For our empirical analysis, we use the LSMS survey conducted in 2002 in Albania. We explain about 40% of the total variance and find that inequalities in education are mainly due to differences between families. Differences within family are lower and far less easily explained.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise in its series THEMA Working Papers with number 2007-21.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ema:worpap:2007-21

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Keywords: Education; intra-household inequality; random effects ordered Probit models; siblings;

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  1. Becker, Gary S & Tomes, Nigel, 1986. "Human Capital and the Rise and Fall of Families," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(3), pages S1-39, July.
  2. Robert Kaestner, 1997. "Are Brothers Really Better? Sibling Sex Composition and Educational Achievement Revisited," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(2), pages 250-284.
  3. Ashenfelter, Orley & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Estimates of the Economic Returns to Schooling from a New Sample of Twins," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1157-73, December.
  4. Guillaume R. Frechette, 2001. "Update to random-effects ordered probit," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 10(61).
  5. William L. Parish & Robert J. Willis, 1993. "Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets Taiwan Experiences," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 863-898.
  6. Behrman, Jere R & Taubman, Paul, 1986. "Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(3), pages S121-45, July.
  7. Lillard, L.A. & Willis, R.J., 1995. "Intergenerational Educational Mobility, Effects of Family and State in Malaysia," Papers 95-02, RAND - Reprint Series.
  8. Paul Glewwe, 2002. "Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 436-482, June.
  9. Robert M. Hauser & Hsiang-Hui Daphne Kuo, 1998. "Does the Gender Composition of Sibships Affect Women's Educational Attainment?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(3), pages 644-657.
  10. Butler, J S & Moffitt, Robert, 1982. "A Computationally Efficient Quadrature Procedure for the One-Factor Multinomial Probit Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 761-64, May.
  11. Ono, Hiroshi, 2004. "Are sons and daughters substitutable?: Allocation of family resources in contemporary Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 143-160, June.
  12. Thomas, D., 1995. "Like Father, Like Son, Like Mother, Like Daughter, Parental Resources and Child Height," Papers 95-01, RAND - Reprint Series.
  13. Eytan Sheshinski & Yoram Weiss, 1979. "Inequality Within and Between Families," NBER Working Papers 0405, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Guillaume R. Frechette, 2001. "Random-effects ordered probit," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 10(59).
  15. Antoine Bommier & Sylvie Lambert, 2004. "Human capital investments and family composition," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 193-196.
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Cited by:
  1. Tien Manh Vu, 2012. "Are daughters always the losers in the chore war? Evidence using household and twin data from Vietnam," OSIPP Discussion Paper 12E002, Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University.
  2. Mussa, Richard, 2011. "Intrahousehold and interhousehold child nutrition inequality in Malawi," MPRA Paper 33498, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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