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Human Resources in China: The Birth Quota, Returns to Schooling, and Migration

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  • T. Paul Schultz

    ()
    (Economic Growth Center, Yale University)

Abstract

Rural elderly have 40% of the income of those in urban areas, spend a larger share of their income on food, are in worse health, work later into their lives, and depend more on their children, lacking pensions and public services. The birth quota since 1980 has particularly restricted the childbearing of rural less educated women, who now faceretirement with fewer children for support. Inequality in China is also be traced to increasing returns to schooling, especially beyond secondary school. Government restrictions on rural-urban migration reduces national efficiency, adds to the urban-rural wage gap, and increases inequality.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Economic Growth Center, Yale University in its series Working Papers with number 855.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:egc:wpaper:855

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Keywords: Human Capital Returns; Rural-Urban Migration; Elderly Poverty; China;

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References

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  1. Gary S. Becker & H. Gregg Lewis, 1974. "Interaction between Quantity and Quality of Children," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 81-90 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Byron, Rayond P & Manaloto, Evelyn Q, 1990. "Returns to Education in China," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(4), pages 783-96, July.
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Cited by:
  1. Wu, Ximing & Perloff, Jeffrey M., 2004. "China'S Income Distribution Over Time: Reasons For Rising Inequality," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20061, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  2. Schultz, T. Paul, 2010. "Population and Health Policies," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
  3. Xiaohua Yu & Guoqing Zhao, 2009. "Chinese agricultural development in 30 years: A literature review," Frontiers of Economics in China, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 633-648, December.
  4. Stark, Oded & Fan, C. Simon, 2007. "Rural-to-Urban Migration, Human Capital, and Agglomeration," Discussion Papers 7116, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).

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