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Do women gain or lose from becoming mothers? A comparative wage analysis in 20 European countries

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  • Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai

Abstract

This paper analyses disparity in women’s pay across 20 European countries using EU-SILC 2006. First, a selectivity-adjusted gender pay gap is computed and examined in each of the countries. Next, the impact of parenthood is analysed. We show that women suffer a wage disadvantage compared with men all over Europe. Motherhood usually reinforces the gender gap but discrimination is more sex- than maternity-related so that it concerns all women as (potential) mothers. Fatherhood has a positive impact on men’s wages. Finally, in most countries, the wage gap between mothers and fathers is even deeper than that between women and men.

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File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/53813/1/RePEc_dul_wpaper_09-11.rs.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles in its series DULBEA Working Papers with number 09-11.RS.

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Length: 52 p.
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published by:
Handle: RePEc:dul:wpaper:09-11.rs

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Keywords: wage gap estimation/decomposition; gender; parenthood.;

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  1. Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S33-58, January.
  2. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  3. Joan R. Rodgers, 2004. "Hourly Wages of full-time and part-time employees in Australia," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE), Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 7(2), pages 231-254, June.
  4. Constantin G. Ogloblin, 1999. "The Gender earnings differential in the Russian transition economy," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(4), pages 602-627, July.
  5. Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
  6. Genre, Véronique & Kohn, Karsten & Momferatou, Daphne, 2009. "Understanding inter-industry wage structures in the euro area," Working Paper Series 1022, European Central Bank.
  7. Danièle Meulders & Siv Gustavsson, 2006. "The rationale of motherhood choices: influence of employment conditions and public policies :MOCHO," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/7734, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  8. Albrecht, James & Björklund, Anders & Vroman, Susan, 2001. "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?," IZA Discussion Papers 282, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Yoram Ben-Porath, 1967. "The Production of Human Capital and the Life Cycle of Earnings," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 352.
  10. Wiji Arulampalam & Alison L. Booth & Mark L. Bryan, 2007. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wage Distribution," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(2), pages 163-186, January.
  11. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1996. "Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages S29-62, Suppl..
  12. Stewart, Mark B, 1983. "Relative Earnings and Individual Union Membership in the United Kingdom," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 50(198), pages 111-25, May.
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