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Immigration Policies and the Ecuadorian Exodus

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Author Info

  • Simone Bertoli

    ()
    (European University Institute)

  • Jesus Fernandez-Huertas Moraga

    ()
    (Institut d'Analisi Economica (Institute of Economics Analysis), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Higher Council of Scientific research))

  • Francesc Ortega

    (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

Abstract

Ecuador experienced an unprecedented wave of international migration since the late 1990s, triggered by a severe economic and financial crisis. This paper gathers individual-level data from Ecuador and the two main destinations of Ecuadorian migrants: the US and Spain. First, we provide a careful description of the main characteristics of migration flows, both in terms of their scale and skill composition. Second, we estimate Mincer regressions for Ecuadorians in the three countries, and attempt to reconcile the features of migration flows with our predictions for earnings by destination. We find that earnings differences can account for the higher share of college graduates among migrants to the US, but fail to explain the larger scale of the flows to Spain. We argue that the puzzle is explained by taking into account that (i) the options to migrate legally to either destination were slim, and (ii) the cost of illegally migrating to Spain was lower than to the US.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London in its series CReAM Discussion Paper Series with number 1001.

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Date of creation: Feb 2010
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Handle: RePEc:crm:wpaper:1001

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Keywords: Migration; Selection; Sorting and Immigration policies;

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References

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  1. Fabian Valencia & Luc Laeven, 2008. "Systemic Banking Crises: A New Database," IMF Working Papers 08/224, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2009. "The Causes and Effects of International Migrations: Evidence from OECD Countries 1980-2005," Working Papers 96, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  3. Grogger, Jeffrey & Hanson, Gordon H., 2011. "Income maximization and the selection and sorting of international migrants," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 42-57, May.
  4. David McKenzie & Hillel Rapoport, 2010. "Self-Selection Patterns in Mexico-U.S. Migration: The Role of Migration Networks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 92(4), pages 811-821, November.
  5. Daniel Chiquiar & Gordon H. Hanson, 2002. "International Migration, Self-Selection, and the Distribution of Wages: Evidence from Mexico and the United States," NBER Working Papers 9242, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Simone BERTOLI, 2010. "Networks, Sorting and Self-selection of Ecuadorian Migrants," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 97-98, pages 261-288.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Simone Bertoli & Jesus Fernandez-Huertas Moraga & Francesc Ortega, 2010. "Crossing the Border: Self-selection, Earnings and Individual Migration Decisions," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1011, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  2. Simone Bertoli & Jesus Fernández-Huertas Moraga, 2012. "Visa Policies, Networks and the Cliff at the Border," Working Papers 2012-12, FEDEA.
  3. Simone BERTOLI & Herbert BRÜCKER & Jesús FERNÁNDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA, 2013. "The European Crisis and Migration to Germany: Expectations and the Diversion of Migration Flows," Working Papers halshs-00913869, HAL.
  4. Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Vegas, Raquel, 2012. "Moroccans', Ecuadorians' and Romanians' Assimilation in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 6542, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. de la Rica, Sara & Glitz, Albrecht & Ortega, Francesc, 2013. "Immigration in Europe: Trends, Policies and Empirical Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 7778, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Simone Bertoli & Jesús Fernández-HuertasMoraga, 2011. "Multilateral Resistance to Migration," Working Papers 2011-04, FEDEA.
  7. Mbaye, Linguère Mously, 2013. ""Barcelona or Die": Understanding Illegal Migration from Senegal," IZA Discussion Papers 7728, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2012. "The Role of Income and Immigration Policies in Attracting International Migrants," Working Papers 1214, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  9. Luciana Méndez Errico, 2013. "The Impacts of Social Networks on Immigrants’ Employment Prospects: The Spanish Case 1997-2007," Working Papers wpdea1301, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  10. Ortega, Francesc & Peri, Giovanni, 2014. "Openness and income: The roles of trade and migration," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 231-251.
  11. Osili, Una Okonkwo & Paulson, Anna, 2014. "Crises and confidence: Systemic banking crises and depositor behavior," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(3), pages 646-660.
  12. Jose Villaverde & Adolfo Maza & María Hierro, 2011. "Regional international migration distribution in Spain: which factors are behind?," ERSA conference papers ersa11p530, European Regional Science Association.
  13. Ortega, Francesc & Peri, Giovanni, 2013. "Migration, Trade and Income," IZA Discussion Papers 7325, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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