Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Where Youth Live: Economic Effects of Urban Space on Employment Prospects

Contents:

Author Info

  • O'Regan, Katherine M.
  • Quigley, John M.

Abstract

This paper summarizes and synthesizes a series of empirical analyses investigating the role of urban space in affecting minority employment outcomes. It adds to the considerable (but inconclusive) literature by broadening the focus beyond transportation and the “friction of space,†and by expanding the data available for spatial research. The empirical analyses share a common framework linking “access†to youth labor market performance. The first set of results is based on aggregate data relating access to employment outcomes for black youth at the metropolitan level. Access is broadly defined to include traditional measures of geographic distance, as well as measures of social isolation or social access. Metropolitan areas in which the black poor are more spatially isolated are also found to have higher black youth unemployment rates. The second body of evidence relies on the same type of metropolitan measures, combined with individual data on youth living with at least one parent. When individual and family characteristics are controlled for, and white and Hispanic youth are also considered, metropolitan measures of social access exert distinguishable effects upon youth employment -- youth living in urban areas in which they have less residential contact with whites or the non poor are less likely to be employed. The final piece of analysis links the individual records of such youth to tract level measures of access, both social (neighborhood composition variables) and geographic (job access measures). This is accomplished through the creation of a unique data set at the Bureau of the Census. Again, after controlling for individual and family characteristics, the residential conditions of youth affect their employment. Ceteris paribus, youth living in census tracts with fewer employed adults, with fewer whites, and which are further from jobs are less likely to be employed. Results suggest that the overall effects of space on employment outcomes are substantial, explaining between ten and forty percent of the observed racial differences in employment in four urban areas examined. Of this “spatial†effect, the bulk arises from social/informational measures; job access appears to play a much smaller role. However, when measured more precisely, at the census tract level, job access does have a significant effect on youth employment. This effect is less important than other spatial influences. Spatial influences are less important in explaining outcomes than are differences in human capital.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/5680x1pm.pdf;origin=repeccitec
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt5680x1pm.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 01 May 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt5680x1pm

Contact details of provider:
Postal: 109 McLaughlin Hall, Mail Code 1720, Berkeley, CA 94720-1720
Phone: 510-642-3585
Fax: 510-643-3955
Email:
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/uctc/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences;

Other versions of this item:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Katherine M. O'Regan and John M. Quigley., 1995. "Teenage Employment and the Spatial Isolation of Minority and Poverty Households," Economics Working Papers, University of California at Berkeley 95-239, University of California at Berkeley.
  2. Miller, Vincent P. & Quigley, John M., 1990. "Segregation by Racial and Demographic Group: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers, University of California Transportation Center qt1839w13f, University of California Transportation Center.
  3. Leonard, Jonathan S., 1987. "The interaction of residential segregation and employment discrimination," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 323-346, May.
  4. O'Regan, Katherine M. & Quigley, John M., 1991. "Labor Market Access and Labor Market Outcomes for Urban Youth," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers, University of California Transportation Center qt9008p2tx, University of California Transportation Center.
  5. Evans, William N & Oates, Wallace E & Schwab, Robert M, 1992. "Measuring Peer Group Effects: A Study of Teenage Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 966-91, October.
  6. Mary Corcoran & Roger Gordon & Deborah Laren & Gary Solon, 1992. "The Association between Men's Economic Status and Their Family and Community Origins," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(4), pages 575-601.
  7. Ihlanfeldt Keith R., 1993. "Intra-urban Job Accessibility and Hispanic Youth Employment Rates," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 254-271, March.
  8. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Sjoquist, David L, 1990. "Job Accessibility and Racial Differences in Youth Employment Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 267-76, March.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. O'Regan, Katherine M. & Quigley, John M., 1997. "Accessibility and Economic Opportunity," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers, University of California Transportation Center qt37h6t700, University of California Transportation Center.
  2. Ronald McQuaid, 2006. "Job search success and employability in local labor markets," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 407-421, June.
  3. Deng, Yongheng & Ross, Stephen L. & Wachter, Susan M., 2003. "Racial differences in homeownership: the effect of residential location," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 517-556, September.
  4. Florence Goffette-Nagot & Claire Dujardin, 2006. "Neighborhood effects, public housing and unemployment in France," Post-Print, HAL halshs-00133854, HAL.
  5. Selod, Harris & Zenou, Yves, 2003. "Does City Structure Affect the Labor Market Outcomes of Black Workers?," IZA Discussion Papers, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) 928, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Simmons-Mosley, Tammie X. & Malpezzi, Stephen, 2006. "Household mobility in New York City's regulated rental housing market," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 38-62, March.
  7. Stephen L. Ross, 2009. "Social Interactions within Cities: Neighborhood Environments and Peer Relationships," Working papers, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics 2009-31, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  8. Louafi Bouzouina & Dominique Mignot, 2005. "Disparités de revenus à différentes échelles spatiales en France de 1985 à 2001," Post-Print, HAL halshs-00108437, HAL.
  9. Louafi Bouzouina, 2006. "Densité résidentielle et ségrégation spatiale : le cas des aires urbaines françaises," Post-Print, HAL halshs-00175769, HAL.
  10. Richard Arnott, 1997. "Economic Theory and the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Boston College Working Papers in Economics, Boston College Department of Economics 390., Boston College Department of Economics.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt5680x1pm. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.