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Densité résidentielle et ségrégation spatiale : le cas des aires urbaines françaises

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  • Louafi Bouzouina

    (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - CNRS : UMR5593 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat)

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    Abstract

    Alors que la lutte contre la ségrégation est un objectif de la politique de la ville, la croissance des disparités socio-spatiales ces vingt dernières années nous conduit à nous interroger sur les causes du phénomène, et plus particulièrement, celles liées à la forme de la ville. Cette démarche nous permet d'analyser la relation entre la ségrégation et certaines politiques correctrices spatiales. L'étalement urbain à travers la faible densité est souvent considéré comme un processus ségrégatif, notamment dans la littérature américaine, et l'idée de densifier les villes pour favoriser la proximité de groupes différents et créer du lien social est souvent avancée.Cette communication est un travail empirique qui propose de tester l'effet de la densité de population sur le niveau de ségrégation au sein des villes françaises, en 2001. L'analyse de l'indice de Gini de ségrégation, calculé sur les revenus fiscaux à l'échelle infra-communale, et la densité résidentielle brute montre que la densité des villes ou de leurs centres ne favorise pas forcément le mélange social. Les résultats mettent en évidence que la faible densité périphérique n'est pas directement liée ni responsable de la ségrégation.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by HAL in its series Post-Print with number halshs-00175769.

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    Date of creation: 2006
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    Publication status: Published - Presented, ASRDLF. Développement local, compétitivité et attractivité des territoires - XLIIè colloque de l'ASRDLF – XIIè colloque du GRERBAM, 4 - 6 septembre 2006, Sfax (Tunisie), 2006, Sfax, Tunisia
    Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00175769

    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00175769/en/
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    Web page: http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/

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    Keywords: disparités de revenus ; ségrégation résidentielle ; densité ; forme urbaine ; politiques de densification;

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    1. Dominique Goux & Éric Maurin, 2005. "Composition sociale du voisinage et échec scolaire. Une évaluation sur données françaises," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 56(2), pages 349-361.
    2. Benabou, Roland, 1993. "Workings of a City: Location, Education, and Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 108(3), pages 619-52, August.
    3. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
    4. Frédéric Gaschet & Julie Le Gallo, 2005. "The Spatial Dimension Of Segregation - A Case Study In Four French Urban Areas, 1990-1999 ," ERSA conference papers ersa05p704, European Regional Science Association.
    5. Dominique Mignot & Anne Aguiléra & Danièle Bloy, 2004. "Permanence des formes de la métropolisation et de l'étalement urbain : rapport final," Post-Print, HAL halshs-00113648, HAL.
    6. Brueckner, Jan K. & Thisse, Jacques-Francois & Zenou, Yves, 1999. "Why is central Paris rich and downtown Detroit poor?: An amenity-based theory," European Economic Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 91-107, January.
    7. O'Regan, Katherine M. & Quigley, John M., 1997. "Where Youth Live: Economic Effects of Urban Space on Employment Prospects," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5680x1pm, University of California Transportation Center.
    8. Susan E. Mayer, 2001. "How the Growth in Income Inequality Increased Economic Segregation," JCPR Working Papers, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research 230, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    9. Eloi Laurent & Joël Maurice & Jean-Paul Fitoussi, 2004. "Ségrégation urbaine et intégration sociale," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/3542, Sciences Po.
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