On Term Structure Models of Commodity Futures Prices and the Kaldor-Working Hypothesis
AbstractBoth prices and the volatility of storable agricultural commodity futures contracts have been rising since 2005 and particularly since 2007. This paper aims to answer two principal questions: (i) How has the behavior of these futures prices over time and across maturities changed with the rise of biofuels and their demand-side pres- sure on corn and related crops?, and (ii) Is there now stronger or weaker evidence of the Kaldor-Working convenience yield-storage hypothesis, whereby futures price backwardation can be explained by the high value of remaining inventory stocks when these are near stockouts? The empirical application is to Chicago Board of Trade corn, wheat and soybeans futures. To make use of all available futures data rather than only the nearby, this paper adopts a recently developed affine term structure model approach and conducts estimation in state-space form using the Kalman filter. A novel aspect of the research is that it allows an arbitrary number N of state vari- ables, where more variables provide further precision and curvature but at a higher computational cost. It is found that a three-state variable model containing both ran- dom walk and mean reversion components provides the most parsimonious fit during 1988-2004, but that a simple one-state variable model is optimal for the period 2005- 2007. The main implication is that futures prices since 2005 behave much more like a \random walk" than before. Also, the model allows us to estimate the term struc- ture of volatility and it is found that distant maturity futures should be expected to be much more volatile than historically normal. Two practical but only tentative implications are: (a) hedgers should use significantly lower hedge ratios than before, and (b) for traders, the classic Black-Scholes option pricing solution should perform better now than it has historically. Lastly, the paper finds partial empirical support for the convenience yield relationship with relative inventory stocks, especially for soybeans and wheat.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by NCCC-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management in its series 2008 Conference, April 21-22, 2008, St. Louis, Missouri with number 37608.
Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 326 Mumford Hall, MC-710, 1301 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, Illinois, 61801
Phone: (217) 333-1810
Fax: (217) 333-5538
Web page: http://www.farmdoc.uiuc.edu/nccc134/
More information through EDIRC
Agricultural Finance; C52; C53; G12; G13; Q13; Q14;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
- C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
- G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing
- G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
- Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
- Q14 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Finance
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-12-14 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nguyen, Vu-Nhat & Geman, Hélyette, 2005. "Soybean Inventory and Forward Curve Dynamics," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/1937, Paris Dauphine University.
- de Jong, Frank & Santa-Clara, Pedro, 1999. "The Dynamics of the Forward Interest Rate Curve: A Formulation with State Variables," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 34(01), pages 131-157, March.
- Serena Ng & Francisco J. Ruge-Murcia, 2000.
"Explaining the Persistence of Commodity Prices,"
Society for Computational Economics, vol. 16(1/2), pages 149-171, October.
- NG, Serena & RUGE-MURCIA, Francisco J., 1997. "Explaining the Persistence of Commodity Prices," Cahiers de recherche 9709, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Serena Ng & Francisco Ruge-Murcia, 1997. "Explaining the Persistence of Commodity Prices," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 374, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Anders B. Trolle & Eduardo S. Schwartz, 2006. "A General Stochastic Volatility Model for the Pricing and Forecasting of Interest Rate Derivatives," NBER Working Papers 12337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Aaron Smith, 2005.
"Partially overlapping time series: a new model for volatility dynamics in commodity futures,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(3), pages 405-422.
- Smith, Aaron D., 2004. "Partially Overlapping Time Series: A New Model for Volatility Dynamics in Commodity Futures," Working Papers 11978, University of California, Davis, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
- Danthine, Jean-Pierre, 1978. "Information, futures prices, and stabilizing speculation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 79-98, February.
- Jaime Casassus & Pierre Collin-Dufresne, 2005. "Stochastic Convenience Yield Implied from Commodity Futures and Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2283-2331, October.
- Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1997. " The Stochastic Behavior of Commodity Prices: Implications for Valuation and Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 923-73, July.
- Williams,Jeffrey C. & Wright,Brian D., 1991.
"Storage and Commodity Markets,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521326162, November.
- Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-54, May-June.
- Qiang Dai & Kenneth J. Singleton, 2000. "Specification Analysis of Affine Term Structure Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 1943-1978, October.
- Brennan, Donna & Williams, Jeffrey & Wright, Brian D, 1997. "Convenience Yield without the Convenience: A Spatial-Temporal Interpretation of Storage under Backwardation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(443), pages 1009-22, July.
- Karali, Berna & Thurman, Walter N., 2008. "Volatility Persistence in Commodity Futures:Inventory and Time-to-Delivery Effects," 2008 Conference, April 21-22, 2008, St. Louis, Missouri 37612, NCCC-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
- Lin, Chuanyi & Roberts, Matthew C., 2006. "A Term Structure Model for Commodity Prices: Does Storability Matter?," 2006 Conference, April 17-18, 2006, St. Louis, Missouri 18993, NCR-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
- Anderson, Ronald W & Danthine, Jean-Pierre, 1983. "The Time Pattern of Hedging and the Volatility of Futures Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(2), pages 249-66, April.
- Duan, Jin-Chuan & Simonato, Jean-Guy, 1999.
" Estimating and Testing Exponential-Affine Term Structure Models by Kalman Filter,"
Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting,
Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 111-35, September.
- Jin-Chuan Duan & Jean-Guy Simonato, 1995. "Estimating and Testing Exponential Affine Term Structure Models by Kalman Filter," CIRANO Working Papers 95s-44, CIRANO.
- Bryan R. Routledge & Duane J. Seppi & Chester S. Spatt, 2000.
"Equilibrium Forward Curves for Commodities,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1297-1338, 06.
- Bryan Routledge & Duane Seppi & Chester Spatt, . "Equilibrium Forward Curves for Commodities," GSIA Working Papers 1997-50, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
- Bryan Routledge & Duane Seppi & Chester Spatt, . "Equilibrium Forward Curves for Commodities," GSIA Working Papers 1997-49, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
- Gibson, Rajna & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1990. " Stochastic Convenience Yield and the Pricing of Oil Contingent Claims," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(3), pages 959-76, July.
- Roy Bailey and Marcus Chambers, .
"A Theory of Commodity Price Fluctuations,"
Economics Discussion Papers
432, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
- Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1987. "Commodity Futures Prices: Some Evidence on Forecast Power, Premiums,and the Theory of Storage," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(1), pages 55-73, January.
- Carter, Colin A., 1999. "Commodity futures markets: a survey," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 43(2).
- Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1988. " Business Cycles and the Behavior of Metals Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1075-93, December.
- Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The valuation of options for alternative stochastic processes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 145-166.
- Scott H. Irwin & Carl R. Zulauf & Thomas E. Jackson, 1996. "Monte Carlo Analysis of Mean Reversion in Commodity Futures Prices," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(2), pages 387-399.
- Aoki,Masanao, 1998. "New Approaches to Macroeconomic Modeling," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521637695, November.
- Eduardo Schwartz & James E. Smith, 2000. "Short-Term Variations and Long-Term Dynamics in Commodity Prices," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(7), pages 893-911, July.
- Bessembinder, Hendrik, et al, 1995. " Mean Reversion in Equilibrium Asset Prices: Evidence from the Futures Term Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 361-75, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.