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Gender, race, pay and promotion in the British nursing profession: estimation of a generalized ordered probit model

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  • Stephen Pudney

    (Public Sector Economics Research Centre, Department of Economics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK)

  • Michael Shields

    (Public Sector Economics Research Centre, Department of Economics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK)

Abstract

We analyse job grading within the UK National Health Service nursing profession, using 1994 survey data. We start from the ordered probit model, for which we develop and apply appropriate specification tests. Threshold constancy and covariate exogeneity are rejected, with important consequences for estimates of the influence of gender, ethnicity, training and career interruptions. We find little evidence of disadvantage for females relative to males, but significant differences in speed of promotion between ethnic groups, implying non-negligible differences in lifetime earnings. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Journal of Applied Econometrics.

Volume (Year): 15 (2000)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 367-399

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Handle: RePEc:jae:japmet:v:15:y:2000:i:4:p:367-399

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  1. Groot, Wim & van den Brink, Henriette Maassen, 1996. "Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 221-226, November.
  2. Wright, Robert E & Ermisch, John F, 1991. "Gender Discrimination in the British Labour Market: A Reassessment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 508-22, May.
  3. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
  4. Pagan, Adrian & Vella, Frank, 1989. "Diagnostic Tests for Models Based on Individual Data: A Survey," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(S), pages S29-59, Supplemen.
  5. Clark, Andrew E & Oswald, Andrew J, 1994. "Unhappiness and Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(424), pages 648-59, May.
  6. Phillips, V. L., 1995. "Nurses' labor supply: Participation, hours of work, and discontinuities in the supply function," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 567-582, December.
  7. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
  8. Michael Shields & Stephen Wheatley Price, 1998. "The earnings of male immigrants in England: evidence from the quarterly LFS," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(9), pages 1157-1168.
  9. Jones, David R & Makepeace, Gerald H, 1996. "Equal Worth, Equal Opportunities: Pay and Promotion in an Internal Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 401-09, March.
  10. Mealli, Fabrizia & Pudney, Stephen, 1996. "Occupational Pensions and Job Mobility in Britain: Estimation of a Random-Effects Competing Risks Model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(3), pages 293-320, May-June.
  11. Renes, Gusta & Ridder, Geert, 1995. "Are women overqualified," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 3-18, March.
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