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Gender and Racial Discrimination in Pay and Promotion for NHS Nurses

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  • Pudney, Stephen

    ()
    (ISER, University of Essex)

  • Shields, Michael A.

    ()
    (Monash University)

Abstract

For many years the NHS has been subject to allegations that gender and racial discrimination are a feature of the internal labour market for qualified nurses. This paper examines this issue with regard to the promotion process using 1994 survey data. We start by rejecting the assumption of covariate exogeneity inherent in the ordered probit model. A full simultaneous model is then developed which has important consequences for estimates of the influence of gender, ethnicity, training and career interruptions. We find evidence of significant differences in speed of promotion between gender and ethnic groups, which imply large differences in career earnings.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 85.

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Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: Dec 1999
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 2000, 62 (s1), 801-835
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp85

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Keywords: ordered probit models; Nursing; ethnicity; endogeneity; gender; promotions;

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References

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  1. Green, Francis, 1993. "The Determinants of Training of Male and Female Employees in Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 55(1), pages 103-22, February.
  2. Stephen Pudney & Michael Shields, . "Gender, Race, Pay and Promotion in the British Nursing Profession Estimation of a Generalised Ordered ProbitModel," Discussion Papers in Economics, Department of Economics, University of Leicester 97/4, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
  3. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
  4. Hirsch, B.T. & Schumacher, E.J., 1993. "Monopsony Power and Relative Wages in the Labor Market for Nurses," Working Papers, Department of Economics, Florida State University 1993_06_03, Department of Economics, Florida State University.
  5. Jones, David R & Makepeace, Gerald H, 1996. "Equal Worth, Equal Opportunities: Pay and Promotion in an Internal Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 401-09, March.
  6. Mroz, Thomas A, 1987. "The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 765-99, July.
  7. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1996. "Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages S29-62, Suppl..
  8. Pagan, Adrian & Vella, Frank, 1989. "Diagnostic Tests for Models Based on Individual Data: A Survey," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(S), pages S29-59, Supplemen.
  9. Wright, Robert E & Ermisch, John F, 1991. "Gender Discrimination in the British Labour Market: A Reassessment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 508-22, May.
  10. Groot, Wim & van den Brink, Henriette Maassen, 1996. "Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 221-226, November.
  11. Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1987. "A General Equilibrium Model of Discrimination and Its Effects on Incomes," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 34(1), pages 19-36, February.
  12. Booth, Alison L & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 1998. "Glass Ceilings or Sticky Floors?," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 1965, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Heckman, James J, 1990. "Varieties of Selection Bias," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 313-18, May.
  14. A. G. Holtmann & Todd L. Idson, 1993. "Wage Determination of Registered Nurses in Proprietary and Nonprofit Nursing Homes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(1), pages 55-79.
  15. Shields, Michael, 1998. "Changes in the Determinants of Employer-Funded Training for Full-Time Employees in Britain, 1984-1994," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(2), pages 189-214, May.
  16. Shields, Michael A & Price, Stephen Wheatley, 1999. "Ethnic Differences in the Incidence and Determinants of Employer-Funded Training in Britain," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 46(5), pages 523-51, November.
  17. Dennis A. Ahlburg & Christine Brown Mahoney, 1996. "The Effect of Wages on the Retention of Nurses," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(s1), pages 126-29, April.
  18. Newey, W.K. & Powell, J.L. & Walker, J.R., 1990. "Semiparametric Estimation Of Selection Models: Some Empirical Results," Working papers, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems 9001, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  19. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
  20. Blackaby, David H, et al, 1997. "A Picture of Male and Female Unemployment among Britain's Ethnic Minorities," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 44(2), pages 182-97, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Chris Doucouliagos & Phillip Hone & Mehmet Ulubasoglu, 2006. "Discrimination, Peformance and Career Progression in Australian Public Sector Labor Markets," Economics Series 2006_07, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
  2. Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields & Stephen Wheatley Price, 2004. "Investigating The Quitting Decision Of Nurses:Panel Data Evidence From The British National Health Service," Paul Frijters Discussion Papers, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology 2004-4, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology.
  3. T. Kankaanranta & P. Rissanen, 2008. "Nurses’ intentions to leave nursing in Finland," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 333-342, November.
  4. Fertig, Michael & Schmidt, Christoph M., 2000. "Discretionary Measures of Active Labor Market Policy: The German Employment Promotion Reform in Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 182, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete & Precious Zikhali, 2011. "Social exclusion and labour market outcomes: evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 10(3), pages 233-250, September.
  6. Shields, Michael A. & Ward, Melanie, 2001. "Improving nurse retention in the National Health Service in England: the impact of job satisfaction on intentions to quit," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 677-701, September.
  7. Haile, Getinet Astatike, 2009. "Unhappy Working with Men? Workplace Gender Diversity and Employee Job-Related Well-Being in Britain: A WERS2004 Based Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 4077, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Paul Frijters & Michael A Shileds & Nikolaos Theodoropoulos & Stephen Wheatley, 2003. "Testing for Employee Discrimination using Matched Employer-Employee Data: Theory and Evidence," School of Economics and Finance Discussion Papers and Working Papers Series, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology 168b, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology.
  9. Nathalie Havet, 2006. "La valorisation salariale et professionnelle de la formation en entreprise diffère-t-elle selon le sexe ? : l'exemple canadien," Post-Print halshs-00360079, HAL.
  10. Empar Pons Blasco & Luisa Escriche Bertolín, 2009. "Who moves up the career ladder? A model of gender differences in job promotion," Working Papers. Serie AD, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie) 2009-23, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  11. Merlino, Luca Paolo, 2012. "Discrimination, technology and unemployment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 557-567.
  12. McNabb, Robert & Wass, Victoria, 2006. "Male-female earnings differentials among lawyers in Britain: a legacy of the law or a current practice?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 219-235, April.
  13. Pedro Rosa Dias, 2010. "Modelling opportunity in health under partial observability of circumstances," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(3), pages 252-264.
  14. Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields & Stephen Wheatley Price & Nikolaos Theodoropoulos, 2006. "Testing for Employee Discrimination in Britain using Matched Employer-Employee Data," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics, University of Cyprus Department of Economics 8-2006, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.

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