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Gender Promotion Differences in Economics Departments in Japan: A Semi-parametric Duration Analysis

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Abstract

By using a unique data set of academic economists in Japanese universities, we conduct the first detailed study of gender differences in the duration of promotion within Japanese academia. We employ a duration model that simultaneously allows: a non-parametric estimation of the baseline hazard function; a non-parametric unobserved heterogeneity component; and the estimation of parameterized coefficients for the observed explanatory variables. Our results show that there are no gender promotion differences, after controlling for personal, job, institutional, human capital characteristics, and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results contrast with the results of previous studies which consistently report substantial gender promotion gaps within US and UK academia. We show that age and education are the most dominant determinants of the survival probability of promotion to full-professor, with minimal rewards given for higher research output. Although the effect of age is not large enough to warrant the conclusion that promotion within Japanese academia is automatically done based on age as it is commonly believed by Japanese academics, a heavy emphasis on objective factors such as age and education may be one reason for why there are no gender promotion differences.

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File URL: http://www.iuj.ac.jp/workingpapers/index.cfm?File=EMS_2009_09.pdf
File Function: First version, 2009
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Research Institute, International University of Japan in its series Working Papers with number EMS_2009_09.

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Length: 45 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iuj:wpaper:ems_2009_09

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Keywords: Female labor supply; Spousal deduction; Social Security System; Non-linear budget constraint;

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References

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  1. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
  2. Ward, Melanie E, 2001. "Gender and Promotion in the Academic Profession," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(3), pages 283-302, August.
  3. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
  4. Dennis J. Aigner & Glen G. Cain, 1977. "Statistical theories of discrimination in labor markets," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(2), pages 175-187, January.
  5. Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2004. "Women in Economics: Moving Up or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 193-214, Summer.
  6. Booth, Alison & Jeff Frank & David Blackaby, 2003. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK Academic Labour Market," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 28, Royal Economic Society.
  7. Blackaby, David & Booth, Alison L & Frank, Jeff, 2002. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3549, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Black, Dan A, 1995. "Discrimination in an Equilibrium Search Model," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(2), pages 309-33, April.
  9. Han, Aaron & Hausman, Jerry A, 1990. "Flexible Parametric Estimation of Duration and Competing Risk Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, January-M.
  10. Van W. Kolpin & Larry D & Singell & Jr, 1996. "The gender composition and scholarly performance of economics departments: A test for employment discrimination," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(3), pages 408-423, April.
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