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The existence of gender-specific promotion standards in the U.S

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  • Kathy A. Paulson Gjerde

    (College of Business Administration, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208-3485, USA)

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    Abstract

    This paper is motivated by the claim that promotion probabilities are lower for women than men. Using data from the 1984 and 1989 National Longitudinal Youth Surveys, this paper tests this claim and two related hypotheses concerning training and ability. It is found that females are less likely to be promoted than males, and females receive less training than males. The relationship between promotion and gender varies across occupations, however, suggesting that the alleged glass ceiling faced by women and other minorities in the workplace is not uniform across all labor markets. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/mde.1097
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Managerial and Decision Economics.

    Volume (Year): 23 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 8 ()
    Pages: 447-459

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    Handle: RePEc:wly:mgtdec:v:23:y:2002:i:8:p:447-459

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    Web page: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/7976

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    1. Larry D. Singell & John M. McDowell & James P. Ziliak, 1999. "Cracks in the Glass Ceiling: Gender and Promotion in the Economics Profession," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 392-396, May.
    2. Mattila, J. Peter & Orazem, Peter & Yu, Ruoh Chiann, 1990. "An Index Number Approach to the Measurement of Wage Differentials by Sex," Staff General Research Papers, Iowa State University, Department of Economics 10844, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    3. Jones, David R & Makepeace, Gerald H, 1996. "Equal Worth, Equal Opportunities: Pay and Promotion in an Internal Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 401-09, March.
    4. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    5. Kathy Cannings, 1988. "Managerial promotion: The effects of socialization, specialization, and gender," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(1), pages 77-88, October.
    6. Ariga, Kenn & Ohkusa, Yasushi & Brunello, Giorgio, 1999. "Fast track: is it in the genes? The promotion policy of a large Japanese firm," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 385-402, April.
    7. Robert Kaestner, 1994. "Some Empirical Evidence on the Use of Gender Specific Promotion Rules," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 20(2), pages 201-218, Spring.
    8. Joseph Gyourko & Joseph Tracy, 1986. "An Analysis of Public and Private Sector Wages Allowing for Endogenous Choices of Both Government and Union Status," NBER Working Papers 1920, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Krowas, John C., 1993. "Time-dependent changes in gender-based promotion differences," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 87-90.
    10. Sharon P. Smith, 1976. "Pay differential between federal government and private sector workers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(2), pages 179-197, January.
    11. Gronau, Reuben, 1973. "The Intrafamily Allocation of Time: The Value of the Housewives' Time," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 63(4), pages 634-51, September.
    12. Groot, Wim & van den Brink, Henriette Maassen, 1996. "Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 221-226, November.
    13. Kathy J. Hayes & Donna K. Ginther, 1999. "Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion in the Humanities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 397-402, May.
    14. Lindsay, Cotton M & Maloney, Michael T, 1988. "A Model and Some Evidence Concerning the Influence of Discrimination on Wages," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(4), pages 645-60, October.
    15. Elaine Sorensen, 1989. "Measuring the pay disparity between typically female occupations and other jobs: A bivariate selectivity approach," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(4), pages 624-639, July.
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