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Imitation processes with small mutations

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  • Fudenberg, Drew
  • Imhof, Lorens A.

Abstract

This note characterizes the impact of adding rare stochastic mutations to an “imitation dynamic,†meaning a process with the properties that absent strategies remain absent, and non-homogeneous states are transient. The resulting system will spend almost all of its time at the absorbing states of the no-mutation process. The work of Freidlin and Wentzell [Random Perturbations of Dynamical Systems, Springer, New York, 1984] and its extensions provide a general algorithm for calculating the limit distribution, but this algorithm can be complicated to apply. This note provides a simpler and more intuitive algorithm. Loosely speaking, in a process with K strategies, it is sufficient to find the invariant distribution of a K×K Markov matrix on the K homogeneous states, where the probability of a transit from “all play i†to “all play j†is the probability of a transition from the state “all agents but 1 play i, 1 plays j†to the state “all play jâ€.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Theory.

Volume (Year): 131 (2006)
Issue (Month): 1 (November)
Pages: 251-262

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jetheo:v:131:y:2006:i:1:p:251-262

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622869

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References

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  1. Allison, G. & Fudenberg, D., 1992. "Rules of Thumb for Social Learning," Working papers 92-12, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  2. Drew Fudenberg & David K. Levine, 1998. "The Theory of Learning in Games," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061945, December.
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  8. BERGIN, James & LIPMAN, Bart, 1994. "Evolution with State-Dependent Mutations," CORE Discussion Papers 1994055, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  9. Noeldecke,Georg & Samuelson,Larry, . "An evolutionary analysis of backward and forward induction," Discussion Paper Serie B 228, University of Bonn, Germany.
  10. M. Kandori & R. Rob, 2010. "Evolution of Equilibria in the Long Run: A General Theory and Applications," Levine's Working Paper Archive 502, David K. Levine.
  11. Ellison, Glenn, 1993. "Learning, Local Interaction, and Coordination," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(5), pages 1047-71, September.
  12. Sandholm, William H., 1998. "Simple and clever decision rules for a model of evolution," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 165-170, November.
  13. Debraj Ray & Dilip Mookherjee & Fernando Vega Redondo & Rajeeva L. Karandikar, 1996. "Evolving aspirations and cooperation," Working Papers. Serie AD 1996-06, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  14. P. Young, 1999. "The Evolution of Conventions," Levine's Working Paper Archive 485, David K. Levine.
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  16. Ellison, Glenn, 2000. "Basins of Attraction, Long-Run Stochastic Stability, and the Speed of Step-by-Step Evolution," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(1), pages 17-45, January.
  17. Nowak, Martin & Sasaki, Akira & Fudenberg, Drew & Taylor, Christine, 2004. "Emergence of Cooperation and Evolutionary Stability in Finite Populations," Scholarly Articles 3196331, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  18. Karl H. Schlag, 1995. "Why Imitate, and if so, How? A Bounded Rational Approach to Multi-Armed Bandits," Discussion Paper Serie B 361, University of Bonn, Germany, revised Mar 1996.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Manapat, Michael L. & Nowak, Martin A. & Rand, David G., 2013. "Information, irrationality, and the evolution of trust," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 90(S), pages S57-S75.
  2. van Veelen, Matthijs, 2012. "Robustness against indirect invasions," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 382-393.
  3. Sekiguchi, Takuya, 2013. "General conditions for strategy abundance through a self-referential mechanism under weak selection," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(13), pages 2886-2892.
  4. Imhof, Lorens & Fudenberg, Drew, 2008. "Monotone Imitation Dynamics in Large Populations," Scholarly Articles 3196338, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  5. Matthey, Astrid, 2010. "Imitation with intention and memory: An experiment," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 585-594, October.
  6. Darong DAI & Kunrong SHEN, 2014. "Stochastic evolutionary cartel formation," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(1(590)), pages 7-26, January.
  7. Sandholm, William H., 2012. "Stochastic imitative game dynamics with committed agents," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(5), pages 2056-2071.
  8. Ellison, Glenn & Fudenberg, Drew & Imhof, Lorens A., 2009. "Random matching in adaptive dynamics," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 98-114, May.
  9. Matthijs van Veelen, 2010. "But Some Neutrally Stable Strategies are More Neutrally Stable than Others," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-033/1, Tinbergen Institute.
  10. Cui, Zhiwei & Zhai, Jian, 2010. "Escape dynamics and equilibria selection by iterative cycle decomposition," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(6), pages 1015-1029, November.
  11. Kevin Hasker, 2014. "The Emergent Seed: A Representation Theorem for Models of Stochastic Evolution and two formulas for Waiting Time," Levine's Working Paper Archive 786969000000000954, David K. Levine.
  12. Bin Wu & Arne Traulsen & Chaitanya S. Gokhale, 2013. "Dynamic Properties of Evolutionary Multi-player Games in Finite Populations," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(2), pages 182-199, May.

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