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Do voluntary international environmental agreements work?

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  • Bratberg, Espen
  • Tjotta, Sigve
  • Oines, Torgeir

Abstract

We consider the effects of international environmental agreements, using the Sofia Protocol on the reduction of nitrogen oxides. Our analysis utilizes panel data from 25 European countries for the period 1980–96. We divide these countries into “participants” and “non-participants”—that is, those that did and those that did not ratify the Sofia Protocol, respectively. Using a difference in difference estimator, we find that signing the treaty has a significant positive impact on emission reduction. The yearly reduction is approximately 2.4 percent greater than it would have been without the Sofia Protocol.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Environmental Economics and Management.

Volume (Year): 50 (2005)
Issue (Month): 3 (November)
Pages: 583-597

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jeeman:v:50:y:2005:i:3:p:583-597

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622870

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References

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  1. Carraro, Carlo & Siniscalco, Domenico, 1993. "Strategies for the international protection of the environment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 309-328, October.
  2. Murdoch, James C. & Sandler, Todd & Vijverberg, Wim P. M., 2003. "The participation decision versus the level of participation in an environmental treaty: a spatial probit analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 337-362, February.
  3. Murdoch, James C. & Sandler, Todd, 1997. "The voluntary provision of a pure public good: The case of reduced CFC emissions and the Montreal Protocol," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 331-349, February.
  4. Lange, Andreas & Vogt, Carsten, 2003. "Cooperation in international environmental negotiations due to a preference for equity," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 2049-2067, September.
  5. Barrett, Scott, 1994. "Self-Enforcing International Environmental Agreements," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 878-94, Supplemen.
  6. Barrett, Scott, 2001. "International cooperation for sale," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(10), pages 1835-1850, December.
  7. Carraro, Carlo & Siniscalco, Domenico, 1998. "International Institutions and Environmental Policy: International environmental agreements: Incentives and political economy1," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-5), pages 561-572, May.
  8. Michael Hoel, 1992. "International environment conventions: The case of uniform reductions of emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 2(2), pages 141-159, March.
  9. Arce M., Daniel G. & Sandler, Todd, 2001. "Transnational public goods: strategies and institutions," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 493-516, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Carlos Ordás Criado & Simone Valente & Thanasis Stengos, 2011. "Growth and Pollution Convergence: Theory and Evidence," Working Papers 1106, University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance.
  2. Aakvik, Arild & Tjøtta, Sigve, 2007. "Do Collective Actions Clear Common Air? The Effect of International Environmental Protocols on Sulphur Emissions," Working Papers in Economics 10/07, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
  3. Sofronis Clerides & Theodoros Zachariadis, 2006. "Are standards Effective in Improving Automobile Fuel Economy?," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 6-2006, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
  4. John Swinton & Amin Sarkar, 2008. "The benefits of the Kyoto Protocol to developing countries," Environment, Development and Sustainability, Springer, vol. 10(6), pages 731-743, December.
  5. Daniel Matisoff, 2010. "Are international environmental agreements enforceable? implications for institutional design," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 165-186, September.
  6. Lange, Ian, 2008. "Evaluating Voluntary Measures with Spillovers: The Case of Coal Combustion Products Partnership," Stirling Economics Discussion Papers 2008-24, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
  7. Stefan Borsky & Andrea Leiter & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2011. "Does going green pay off? The effect of an international environmental agreement on tropical timber trade," Working Papers 2011-17, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
  8. Jürg Vollenweider, 2013. "The effectiveness of international environmental agreements," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 343-367, September.
  9. Partha Sen, 2008. "Fdeveloping Economies And The Environment - The Role Of Trade And Capital Flows," Working papers 172, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  10. Stefan Borsky & Paul A. Raschky, 2011. "A Spatial Econometric Analysis of Compliance with an International Environmental Agreement on Open Access Resources," Development Research Unit Working Paper Series 05-11, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  11. Alexandre Sauquet, 2014. "Exploring the nature of inter-country interactions in the process of ratifying international environmental agreements: the case of the Kyoto Protocol," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 159(1), pages 141-158, April.
  12. Carlos Ordás Criado & Simone Valente & Thanasis Stengos, 2009. "Growth and the pollution convergence hypothesis: a nonparametric approach," CEPE Working paper series 09-66, CEPE Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich.
  13. Borsky, Stefan & Raschky, Paul A., 2012. "A Spatial Econometric Analysis of Compliance with an International Environmental Agreement on an Open Access Resource," 2012 Conference (56th), February 7-10, 2012, Freemantle, Australia 124425, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  14. Clerides, Sofronis & Zachariadis, Theodoros, 2008. "The effect of standards and fuel prices on automobile fuel economy: An international analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2657-2672, September.

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