Cross-country convergence in energy and electricity consumption, 1971–2007
AbstractPatterns of convergence in per-capita consumption of energy and electricity are studied from a large cross-country data set covering the period 1971–2007. Along with unconditional β-convergence, we use σ-convergence criterion and a simple model of conditional β-convergence. The exploration is done for the entire period and several subperiods. In addition to OLS for the global sample, β-convergence is studied for top and bottom deciles through quantile regressions. Ten points are noted. First, global convergence in energy consumption is generally weak. Second, convergence in electricity usage is strong in most cases. Third, despite some variations, the patterns are fairly similar across the four periods. Fourth, energy convergence in both top and bottom deciles is generally weak, but there are some variations. Fifth, for electricity, convergence is noted in the top, but not in the bottom, decile. Sixth, unconditional β-convergence patterns are consistent with σ-convergence scenarios. Seventh, as is usually noted, convergence is more marked in conditional β-format than in the unconditional models. However, interpretation of conditional convergence in usage of energy or electricity is somewhat ambiguous. Eighth, weak convergence in energy usage might reflect a modestly larger increase in low-usage contexts relative to high-usage cases, and might not be of concern from the sustainability perspective. Ninth, strong convergence in electricity usage is associated with a much higher rate of global increase than the weakly-convergent energy usage. Last, the difference in convergence patterns for energy- and electricity-usage seems to merit further exploration.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Economics.
Volume (Year): 34 (2012)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco
Cross-country convergence; Energy consumption; Electricity consumption; Quantiles;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
- O40 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General
- Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
- Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Maria Abreu Henri L. F. de Groot & Raymond J. G. M. Florax, 2005. "A Meta-Analysis of β-Convergence: the Legendary 2%," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 389-420, 07.
- Joseph Aldy, 2006.
"Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 33(4), pages 533-555, 04.
- Aldy, Joseph, 2005. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Discussion Papers dp-05-53, Resources For the Future.
- Yannick LE PEN & Benoît SEVI, 2008.
"On the non-convergence of energy intensities: evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach,"
Cahiers du CREDEN (CREDEN Working Papers)
08.12.79, CREDEN (Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l'Energie), Faculty of Economics, University of Montpellier 1.
- Le Pen, Yannick & Sévi, Benoît, 2010. "On the non-convergence of energy intensities: Evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 641-650, January.
- Juan Antonio Duro & Emilio Padilla, 2010.
"Inequality across countries in energy intensities: an analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption,"
wpdea1008, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2011. "Inequality across countries in energy intensities: An analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 474-479, May.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Liddle, Brantley, 2010. "Revisiting world energy intensity convergence for regional differences," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(10), pages 3218-3225, October.
- Peter Mulder & Henri Groot, 2007.
"Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 36(1), pages 85-112, January.
- Henri De Groot & Peter Mulder, 2004. "Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence," ERSA conference papers ersa04p337, European Regional Science Association.
- Peter Mulder & Henri de Groot, 2003. "Sectoral energy- and labour-productivity convergence," CPB Discussion Paper 23, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
- Peter Mulder & Henri L.F. de Groot, 2004. "Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-003/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Roger Koenker & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001.
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 143-156, Fall.
- Liddle, Brantley, 2009. "Electricity intensity convergence in IEA/OECD countries: Aggregate and sectoral analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1470-1478, April.
- repec:ner:dauphi:urn:hdl:123456789/6801 is not listed on IDEAS
- Miketa, Asami & Mulder, Peter, 2005. "Energy productivity across developed and developing countries in 10 manufacturing sectors: Patterns of growth and convergence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 429-453, May.
- Nazrul Islam, 2003. "What have We Learnt from the Convergence Debate?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(3), pages 309-362, 07.
- Markandya, Anil & Pedroso-Galinato, Suzette & Streimikiene, Dalia, 2006. "Energy intensity in transition economies: Is there convergence towards the EU average?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 121-145, January.
- Maza, Adolfo & Villaverde, José, 2008. "The world per capita electricity consumption distribution: Signs of convergence?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 4255-4261, November.
- Le Pen, Yannick & Sévi, Benoît, 2010. "On the non-convergence of energy intensities: Evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/6801, Paris Dauphine University.
- Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Distribution dynamics of energy intensities: A cross-country analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 5254-5259, October.
- Ram, Rati, 2008. "Parametric variability in cross-country growth regressions: An application of quantile-regression methodology," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 387-389, May.
- Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.
- Burnett, J. Wesley, 2013. "Club Convergence and Clustering of U.S. Energy-Related CO2 Emissions," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149578, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.