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Inequality across countries in energy intensities: an analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption

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  • Juan Antonio Duro

    ()
    (Departament d'Economia, Universidad Rovira i Virgili)

  • Emilio Padilla

    ()
    (Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona)

Abstract

This paper analyzes the role of the energy transformation index and of final energy consumption per GDP unit in the disparities in energy intensity across countries. In that vein, we use a Theil decomposition approach to analyze global primary energy intensity inequality as well as inequality across different regions of the world and inequality within these regions. The paper first demonstrates the pre-eminence of divergence in final energy consumption per GDP unit in explaining global primary energy intensity inequality and its evolution during the 1971–2006 period. Secondly, it shows the lower (albeit non negligible) impact of the transformation index in global primary energy inequality. Thirdly, the relevance of regions as unit of analysis in studying crosscountry energy intensity inequality and their explanatory factors is highlighted. And finally, how regions around the world differ as to the relevance of the energy transformation index in explaining primary energy intensity inequality.

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File URL: http://www.ecap.uab.es/RePEc/doc/wpdea1008.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona in its series Working Papers with number wpdea1008.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uab:wprdea:wpdea1008

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Keywords: Energy efficiency; energy intensities; energy transformation; Theil index;

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References

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  1. Cantore, Nicola & Padilla, Emilio, 2010. "Equality and CO2 emissions distribution in climate change integrated assessment modelling," Energy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 298-313.
  2. Emilio Padilla & Alfredo Serrano, 2005. "Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: a distributive approach," Working Papers, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona wpdea0503, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  3. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 170-187, March.
  4. Vicent Alcántara Escolano & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2005. "Análisis de las emisiones de CO2 y sus factores explicativos en las diferentes áreas del mundo," Revista de Economía Crítica, Asociación de Economía Crítica, Asociación de Economía Crítica, vol. 4, pages 17-37.
  5. Juan Antonio Duro, 2003. "Factor decomposition of spatial income inequality: a revision," Working Papers, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona wpdea0302, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  6. Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
  7. Sun, J. W., 2002. "The decrease in the difference of energy intensities between OECD countries from 1971 to 1998," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 631-635, June.
  8. Alcantara, Vicent & Duro, Juan Antonio, 2004. "Inequality of energy intensities across OECD countries: a note," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 1257-1260, July.
  9. Hamilton, Clive & Turton, Hal, 2002. "Determinants of emissions growth in OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 63-71, January.
  10. Duro, Juan Antonio & Alcántara, Vicent & Padilla, Emilio, 2010. "International inequality in energy intensity levels and the role of production composition and energy efficiency: An analysis of OECD countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2468-2474, October.
  11. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2008. "Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 456-466, January.
  12. Groot, Loek, 2010. "Carbon Lorenz curves," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 45-64, January.
  13. Miketa, Asami & Mulder, Peter, 2005. "Energy productivity across developed and developing countries in 10 manufacturing sectors: Patterns of growth and convergence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 429-453, May.
  14. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Baležentis, Alvydas & Baležentis, Tomas & Streimikiene, Dalia, 2011. "The energy intensity in Lithuania during 1995–2009: A LMDI approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7322-7334.
  2. Peter Mulder & Henri L.F. de Groot, 2012. "Structural Change and Convergence of Energy Intensity across OECD Countries, 1970-2005," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 12-027/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Antonio Duro, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP) XREAP2012-15, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Sep 2012.
  4. Mulder, Peter & de Groot, Henri L.F. & Pfeiffer, Birte, 2014. "Dynamics and determinants of energy intensity in the service sector: A cross-country analysis, 1980–2005," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 1-15.
  5. Duro, Juan Antonio, 2013. "Weighting vectors and international inequality changes in environmental indicators: An analysis of CO2 per capita emissions and Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 122-127.
  6. Mohammadi, Hassan & Ram, Rati, 2012. "Cross-country convergence in energy and electricity consumption, 1971–2007," Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1882-1887.
  7. Peter Mulder & Henri L.F. de Groot, 2012. "Structural Change and Convergence of Energy Intensity across OECD Countries, 1970-2005," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 12-027/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  8. Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio & Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Padilla, Emilio, 2013. "Empirics of the international inequality in CO2 emissions intensity: explanatory factors according to complementary decomposition methodologies," Working Papers, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics 2072/220759, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  9. Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2013. "The Building Blocks of International Ecological Footprint inequality: A Regression-Base Decomposition," Working Papers, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics 2072/211883, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  10. Wang, Chunhua, 2013. "Changing energy intensity of economies in the world and its decomposition," Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 637-644.
  11. Jimenez, Raul & Mercado, Jorge, 2014. "Energy intensity: A decomposition and counterfactual exercise for Latin American countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 161-171.

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