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Inequality across countries in energy intensities: An analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption

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  • Duro, Juan Antonio
  • Padilla, Emilio

Abstract

This paper analyzes the role of the energy transformation index and of final energy consumption per GDP unit in the disparities in energy intensity across countries. In that vein, we use a Theil decomposition approach to analyze global primary energy intensity inequality as well as inequality across different regions of the world and inequality within these regions. The paper first demonstrates the pre-eminence of divergence in final energy consumption per GDP unit in explaining global primary energy intensity inequality and its evolution during the 1971-2006 period. Secondly, it shows the lower (albeit non negligible) impact of the transformation index in global primary energy inequality. Thirdly, the relevance of regions as unit of analysis in studying cross-country energy intensity inequality and their explanatory factors is highlighted. And finally, how regions around the world differ as to the relevance of the energy transformation index in explaining primary energy intensity inequality.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Economics.

Volume (Year): 33 (2011)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 474-479

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Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:33:y:2011:i:3:p:474-479

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/eneco

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Keywords: Energy efficiency Energy intensities Energy transformation Theil index;

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References

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  1. Alcantara, Vicent & Duro, Juan Antonio, 2004. "Inequality of energy intensities across OECD countries: a note," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 1257-1260, July.
  2. Padilla, Emilio & Serrano, Alfredo, 2006. "Inequality in CO2 emissions across countries and its relationship with income inequality: A distributive approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1762-1772, September.
  3. Hamilton, Clive & Turton, Hal, 2002. "Determinants of emissions growth in OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 63-71, January.
  4. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2006. "International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: A decomposition methodology by Kaya factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 170-187, March.
  5. Duro, Juan Antonio & Alcántara, Vicent & Padilla, Emilio, 2010. "International inequality in energy intensity levels and the role of production composition and energy efficiency: An analysis of OECD countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2468-2474, October.
  6. Juan Antonio Duro, 2003. "Factor decomposition of spatial income inequality: a revision," Working Papers wpdea0302, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
  7. L.F.M. Groot, 2008. "Carbon Lorenz Curves," Working Papers 08-33, Utrecht School of Economics.
  8. Sun, J. W., 2002. "The decrease in the difference of energy intensities between OECD countries from 1971 to 1998," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 631-635, June.
  9. Hedenus, Fredrik & Azar, Christian, 2005. "Estimates of trends in global income and resource inequalities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 351-364, November.
  10. Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2008. "Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 456-466, January.
  11. Vicent Alcántara Escolano & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2005. "Análisis de las emisiones de CO2 y sus factores explicativos en las diferentes áreas del mundo," Revista de Economía Crítica, Asociación de Economía Crítica, vol. 4, pages 17-37.
  12. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
  13. Miketa, Asami & Mulder, Peter, 2005. "Energy productivity across developed and developing countries in 10 manufacturing sectors: Patterns of growth and convergence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 429-453, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jordi Teixidó-Figueras & Juan Antonio Duro, 2013. "The building blocks of international ecological footprint inequality: a regression-based decomposition," Working Papers XREAP2013-03, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Apr 2013.
  2. Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers 2072/203168, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  3. Jimenez, Raul & Mercado, Jorge, 2014. "Energy intensity: A decomposition and counterfactual exercise for Latin American countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 161-171.
  4. Baležentis, Alvydas & Baležentis, Tomas & Streimikiene, Dalia, 2011. "The energy intensity in Lithuania during 1995–2009: A LMDI approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7322-7334.
  5. Mulder, Peter & de Groot, Henri L.F., 2012. "Structural change and convergence of energy intensity across OECD countries, 1970–2005," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1910-1921.
  6. Peter Mulder & Henri L.F. de Groot, 2012. "Structural Change and Convergence of Energy Intensity across OECD Countries, 1970-2005," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-027/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  7. Mulder, Peter & de Groot, Henri L.F. & Pfeiffer, Birte, 2014. "Dynamics and determinants of energy intensity in the service sector: A cross-country analysis, 1980–2005," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 1-15.
  8. Mohammadi, Hassan & Ram, Rati, 2012. "Cross-country convergence in energy and electricity consumption, 1971–2007," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1882-1887.
  9. Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio & Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Padilla, Emilio, 2013. "Empirics of the international inequality in CO2 emissions intensity: explanatory factors according to complementary decomposition methodologies," Working Papers 2072/220759, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  10. Wang, Chunhua, 2013. "Changing energy intensity of economies in the world and its decomposition," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 637-644.
  11. Peter Mulder & Henri L.F. de Groot & Birte Pfeiffer, 2013. "Dynamics and Determinants of Energy Intensity in the Service Sector: A Cross-Country Analysis, 1980–2005," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-175/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.

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