Financial returns and efficiency as seen by an artificial technical analyst
AbstractPrevious research has shown that simple trading rules can be useful tools for evaluating financial models. Here we introduce trading rules which are selected by an artificially intelligent agent who learns from experience - an Artificial Technical Analyst. We show that the rules used by this agent can lead to the recognition of subtle regularities in return processes whilst suffering from lesser data-mining problems than other rules commonly used as model evaluation devices. The relationship between the efficiency of financial markets and the efficacy of technical analysis is investigated and it is shown that the Artificial Technical Analyst can be used to provide a quantifiable measure of market efficiency. The measure is applied to the DJIA daily index from 1962 to 1986 and it is shown that a quantification of efficiency based on the profits of an Artificial Technical Analyst can lead to interesting results concerning the behaviour of other investors.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control.
Volume (Year): 25 (2001)
Issue (Month): 1-2 (January)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jedc
Other versions of this item:
- Spyros Skouras, 1998. "Financial Returns and Efficiency as seen by an Artificial Technical Analyst," Finance 9808001, EconWPA, revised 24 Aug 1998.
- C8 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs
- G - Financial Economics
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Latham, Mark, 1986. " Informational Efficiency and Information Subsets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(1), pages 39-52, March.
- Christoffersen, Peter F & Diebold, Francis X, 1996.
"Further Results on Forecasting and Model Selection under Asymmetric Loss,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(5), pages 561-71, Sept.-Oct.
- Christoffersen & Diebold, . "Further Results on Forecasting and Model Selection Under Asymmetric Loss," Home Pages _059, University of Pennsylvania.
- Neely, Christopher & Weller, Paul & Dittmar, Rob, 1997.
"Is Technical Analysis in the Foreign Exchange Market Profitable? A Genetic Programming Approach,"
Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,
Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(04), pages 405-426, December.
- Dittmar, Robert & Neely, Christopher J & Weller, Paul, 1996. "Is Technical Analysis in the Foreign Exchange Market Profitable? A Genetic Programming Approach," CEPR Discussion Papers 1480, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Christopher J. Neely & Paul A. Weller & Robert Dittmar, 1997. "Is technical analysis in the foreign exchange market profitable? a genetic programming approach," Working Papers 1996-006, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Lars Peter Hansen & Ravi Jagannathan, 1990.
"Implications of security market data for models of dynamic economies,"
Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics
29, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Hansen, Lars Peter & Jagannathan, Ravi, 1991. "Implications of Security Market Data for Models of Dynamic Economies," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(2), pages 225-62, April.
- Lars Peter Hansen & Ravi Jagannathan, 1990. "Implications of Security Market Data for Models of Dynamic Economies," NBER Technical Working Papers 0089, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Taylor, Mark P. & Allen, Helen, 1992. "The use of technical analysis in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 304-314, June.
- Jensen, Michael C., 1978. "Some anomalous evidence regarding market efficiency," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(2-3), pages 95-101.
- Lakonishok, Josef & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1994.
" Contrarian Investment, Extrapolation, and Risk,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1541-78, December.
- Josef Lakonishok & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1993. "Contrarian Investment, Extrapolation, and Risk," University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State 84, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
- Josef Lakonishok & Robert W. Vishny & Andrei Shleifer, 1993. "Contrarian Investment, Extrapolation, and Risk," NBER Working Papers 4360, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Neftci, Salih N, 1991. "Naive Trading Rules in Financial Markets and Wiener-Kolmogorov Prediction Theory: A Study of "Technical Analysis."," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(4), pages 549-71, October.
- Brock, William & Lakonishok, Josef & LeBaron, Blake, 1992.
" Simple Technical Trading Rules and the Stochastic Properties of Stock Returns,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 47(5), pages 1731-64, December.
- Brock, W. & Lakonishok, J. & Lebaron, B., 1991. "Simple Technical Trading Rules And The Stochastic Properties Of Stock Returns," Working papers 90-22, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- W. Brian Arthur, 1992. "On Learning and Adaptation in the Economy," Working Papers 854, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- repec:att:wimass:9118 is not listed on IDEAS
- Olivier V. Pictet & Michel M. Dacorogna & Rakhal D. Dave & Bastien Chopard & Roberto Schirru & Marco Tomassini, . "Genetic Algorithms with collective sharing for Robust Optimization in Financial Applications," Working Papers 1995-02-06., Olsen and Associates.
- Spyros Skouras, . "A Theory of Technical Analysis," Computing in Economics and Finance 1997 58, Society for Computational Economics.
- Blake LeBaron, .
"Technical Trading Rules and Regime Shifts in Foreign Exchange,"
_007, University of Wisconsin - Madison.
- repec:att:wimass:9625 is not listed on IDEAS
- Ross, Stephen A, 1987. "The Interrelations of Finance and Economics: Theoretical Perspectives," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 29-34, May.
- W. Brian Arthur & John H. Holland & Blake LeBaron & Richard Palmer & Paul Taylor, 1996.
"Asset Pricing Under Endogenous Expectation in an Artificial Stock Market,"
96-12-093, Santa Fe Institute.
- Ryan Sullivan & Allan Timmermann & Halbert White, 1999.
"Data-Snooping, Technical Trading Rule Performance, and the Bootstrap,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 54(5), pages 1647-1691, October.
- Sullivan, Ryan & Timmermann, Allan G & White, Halbert, 1998. "Data-Snooping, Technical Trading Rule Performance and the Bootstrap," CEPR Discussion Papers 1976, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Allan Timmermann & Halbert White & Ryan Sullivan, 1998. "Data-Snooping, Technical Trading, Rule Performance and the Bootstrap," FMG Discussion Papers dp303, Financial Markets Group.
- Hanoch, G & Levy, Haim, 1969. "The Efficiency Analysis of Choices Involving Risk," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(107), pages 335-46, July.
- Marimon, Ramon & McGrattan, Ellen & Sargent, Thomas J., 1990. "Money as a medium of exchange in an economy with artificially intelligent agents," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 329-373, May.
- Richard B. Olsen & Michel M. Dacorogna & Ulrich A. Muller, & Olivier V. Pictet, . "Going Back to the Basics - Rethinking Market Efficiency," Working Papers 1992-09-07., Olsen and Associates.
- Blume, Lawrence & Easley, David & O'Hara, Maureen, 1994. " Market Statistics and Technical Analysis: The Role of Volume," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 153-81, March.
- Franklin Allen & Risto Karjalainen, . "Using Genetic Algorithms to Find Technical Trading Rules (Revised: 20-95)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 20-93, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Allen, Helen & Taylor, Mark P, 1990. "Charts, Noise and Fundamentals in the London Foreign Exchange Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(400), pages 49-59, Supplemen.
- Cumby, Robert E. & Modest, David M., 1987. "Testing for market timing ability : A framework for forecast evaluation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 169-189, September.
- Fama, Eugene F, 1991. " Efficient Capital Markets: II," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(5), pages 1575-617, December.
- Taylor, Stephen J, 1992. "Rewards Available to Currency Futures Speculators: Compensation for Risk or Evidence of Inefficient Pricing?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 0(0), pages 105-16, Supplemen.
- Blake LeBaron, . "Do Moving Average Trading Rule Results Imply Nonlinearities in Foreign Exchange?," Working papers _005, University of Wisconsin - Madison.
- Treynor, Jack L & Ferguson, Robert, 1985. " In Defense of Technical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 757-73, July.
- Skouras, S., 1997. "Analysing Technical Analysis," Economics Working Papers eco97/36, European University Institute.
- LeRoy, Stephen F, 1989. "Efficient Capital Markets and Martingales," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 27(4), pages 1583-1621, December.
- repec:fth:calaec:13-89 is not listed on IDEAS
- Hendrik Bessembinder & Kalok Chan, 1998. "Market Efficiency and the Returns to Technical Analysis," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 27(2), Summer.
- Cooper, Ian & Kaplanis, Evi, 1994. "Home Bias in Equity Portfolios, Inflation Hedging, and International Capital Market Equilibrium," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 45-60.
- Scholes, Myron & Williams, Joseph, 1977. "Estimating betas from nonsynchronous data," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 309-327, December.
- Isakov, Dusan & Marti, Didier, 2011. "Technical Analysis with a Long-Term Perspective: Trading Strategies and Market Timing Ability," FSES Working Papers 421, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Freiburg/Fribourg Switzerland.
- Bell, Peter N, 2013. "New Testing Procedures to Assess Market Efficiency with Trading Rules," MPRA Paper 46701, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Florios, Kostas & Skouras, Spyros, 2008. "Exact computation of max weighted score estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 146(1), pages 86-91, September.
- Hristos Doucouliagos, 2003.
"Price Exhaustion and Number Preference: Time and Price Confluence in Australian Stock Prices,"
2003_06, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
- Chris Doucouliagos, 2005. "Price exhaustion and number preference: time and price confluence in Australian stock prices," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 207-221.
- Dewachter, Hans & Lyrio, Marco, 2006. "The cost of technical trading rules in the Forex market: A utility-based evaluation," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1072-1089, November.
- Saacke, Peter, 2002. "Technical analysis and the effectiveness of central bank intervention," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 459-479, August.
- Oliver Blaskowitz & Helmut Herwartz, 2009.
"On economic evaluation of directional forecasts,"
SFB 649 Discussion Papers
SFB649DP2009-052, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
- Fong, Wai Mun & Yong, Lawrence H. M., 2005. "Chasing trends: recursive moving average trading rules and internet stocks," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 43-76, January.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.