AbstractPeople pay attention to the appearance of others, and personal characteristics can affect many types of decisions. We ask, is there informational value in a face in a situation where trust and reciprocity can increase earnings? We use a laboratory trust game experiment where subjects are unable to observe a counterpart, must observe a counterpart, or can pay to reveal a counterpart's photograph. Both senders and responders are willing to pay to observe the photos, and we show that behavior, earnings, and efficiency are affected. When subjects are "face to face," efficiency is enhanced, and senders have higher earnings. (JEL D12, D83, Z13)
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Review.
Volume (Year): 101 (2011)
Issue (Month): 4 (June)
Other versions of this item:
- Catherine C. Eckel & Ragan Petrie, 2008. "Face Value," Experimental Economics Center Working Paper Series 2008-11, Experimental Economics Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
- D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search, Learning, and Information
- Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Carrillo, Juan D & Mariotti, Thomas, 2000. "Strategic Ignorance as a Self-Disciplining Device," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(3), pages 529-44, July.
- Daniel S. Hamermesh & Jeff E. Biddle, 1993.
"Beauty and the Labor Market,"
NBER Working Papers
4518, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Eckel, Catherine C & Grossman, Philip J, 2001. "Chivalry and Solidarity in Ultimatum Games," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 39(2), pages 171-88, April.
- Eckel, Catherine C. & Grossman, Philip J., 2008. "Differences in the Economic Decisions of Men and Women: Experimental Evidence," Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, Elsevier.
- Andreoni,J. & Petrie,R., 2004.
"Beauty, gender and stereotypes : evidence from laboratory experiments,"
6, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Andreoni, James & Petrie, Ragan, 2008. "Beauty, gender and stereotypes: Evidence from laboratory experiments," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 73-93, February.
- James Andreoni & Ragan Petrie, 2005. "Beauty, Gender and Stereotypes: Evidence from Laboratory Experiments," Experimental Economics Center Working Paper Series 2006-22, Experimental Economics Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- Haile, Daniel & Sadrieh, Karim & Verbon, Harrie, 2006.
"Cross-racial Envy and Underinvestment in South Africa,"
2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA
21269, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Daniel Haile & Abdolkarim Sadrieh & Harrie A. A Verbon, 2006. "Cross-Racial Envy and Underinvestment in South Africa," CESifo Working Paper Series 1657, CESifo Group Munich.
- Eckel, Catherine C & Grossman, Philip J, 1998. "Are Women Less Selfish Than Men? Evidence from Dictator Experiments," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(448), pages 726-35, May.
- James C. Cox & Cary A. Deck, 2006.
"When are Women More Generous than Men?,"
Experimental Economics Center Working Paper Series
2006-07, Experimental Economics Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
- Jeannette Brosig & Joachim Weimann & Axel Ockenfels, 2003.
"The Effect of Communication Media on Cooperation,"
German Economic Review,
Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 4(2), pages 217-241, 05.
- Garbarino, Ellen & Slonim, Robert, 2009. "The robustness of trust and reciprocity across a heterogeneous U.S. population," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 226-240, March.
- Manuel Amador & George-Marios Angeletos & Ivan Werning, 2004.
"Commitment vs. Flexibility,"
2004 Meeting Papers
87, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005.
"Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?,"
NBER Working Papers
11474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2007. "Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1067-1101, 08.
- Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete too Much?," Discussion Papers 04-030, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
- Ben Greiner & Werner Guth & Ro’i Zultan, 2005.
"Let the Dummy Talk! Unilateral Communication and Discrimination in Three-Person Dictator Experiments,"
Discussion Paper Series
dp396, The Center for the Study of Rationality, Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
- Ben Greiner & Werner Güth & Ro'i Zultan, 2005. "Let the Dummy Talk! - Unilateral Communication and Discrimination in Three-Person Dictator Experiments -," Working Paper Series in Economics 18, University of Cologne, Department of Economics.
- Ben Greiner & Ro’i Zultan & Werner Güth, 2005. "Let the Dummy Talk! - Unilateral Communication and Discrimination in Three-Person Dictator Experiments -," Papers on Strategic Interaction 2005-18, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group.
- James Andreoni & Ragan Petrie, 2003.
"Public Goods Experiments Without Confidentiality: A Glimpse Into Fund-Raising,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
506439000000000520, David K. Levine.
- Andreoni, James & Petrie, Ragan, 2004. "Public goods experiments without confidentiality: a glimpse into fund-raising," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(7-8), pages 1605-1623, July.
- Buchan, Nancy R. & Croson, Rachel T.A. & Solnick, Sara, 2008. "Trust and gender: An examination of behavior and beliefs in the Investment Game," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 68(3-4), pages 466-476, December.
- Lagerlöf, Johan N.M., 2003.
"Are we Better Off if our Politicians Have More Information?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
3884, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Johan Lagerl–f, 2004. "Are We Better Off if Our Politicians Have More Information?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(1), pages 123-142, 03.
- Johan Lagerlof, 2002. "Are We Better Off If Our Politicians Have More Information?," Public Economics 0209001, EconWPA.
- Berg Joyce & Dickhaut John & McCabe Kevin, 1995. "Trust, Reciprocity, and Social History," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 122-142, July.
- Marco Castillo & Ragan Petrie, 2006. "Discrimination in the Lab: Experiments Exploring the Impact of Performance and Appearance on Sorting and Cooperation," Experimental Economics Center Working Paper Series 2006-20, Experimental Economics Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, revised Dec 2006.
- Isabelle Brocas & Juan D. Carrillo, 2004. "Entrepreneurial Boldness and Excessive Investment," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(2), pages 321-350, 06.
- Rosenblat, Tanya & Mobius, Markus, 2006.
"Why Beauty Matters,"
3043406, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-74, June.
- Burnham, Terence C., 2003. "Engineering altruism: a theoretical and experimental investigation of anonymity and gift giving," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 133-144, January.
- Bohnet, Iris & Frey, Bruno S., 1999. "The sound of silence in prisoner's dilemma and dictator games," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 43-57, January.
- Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance In Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074, August.
- Solnick, Sara J. & Schweitzer, Maurice E., 1999. "The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Gender on Ultimatum Game Decisions," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 199-215, September.
- Burns, Justine, 2006. "Racial stereotypes, stigma and trust in post-apartheid South Africa," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 805-821, September.
- Jason Dana & Roberto Weber & Jason Kuang, 2007. "Exploiting moral wiggle room: experiments demonstrating an illusory preference for fairness," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 67-80, October.
- Faillo, Marco & Grieco, Daniela & Zarri, Luca, 2012.
"Cultural Diversity, Cooperation,and Anti-social Punishment,"
AICCON Working Papers
102-2012, Associazione Italiana per la Cultura della Cooperazione e del Non Profit.
- Marco Faillo & Daniela Grieco & Luca Zarri, 2012. "Cultural Diversity, Cooperation, and Antisocial Punishment," Working Papers 09/2012, University of Verona, Department of Economics.
- Mago , Shakun & Samak , Anya & Sheremeta, Roman, 2013.
"Facing Your Opponents: Social Identification and Information Feedback in Contests,"
47029, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Shakun D. Mago & Anya C. Savikhin & Roman M. Sheremeta, 2012. "Facing Your Opponents: Social identification and information feedback in contests," Working Papers 12-15, Chapman University, Economic Science Institute.
- Anya Savikhin & Roman Sheremeta, 2010.
"Visibility of Contributions and Cost of Information: An Experiment on Public Goods,"
10-22, Chapman University, Economic Science Institute.
- Samak, Anya & Sheremeta, Roman, 2013. "Visibility of Contributors and Cost of Information: An Experiment on Public Goods," MPRA Paper 46779, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Friesen, Jane & Arifovic, Jasmina & Wright, Stephen C. & Ludwig, Andreas & Giamo, Lisa & Baray, Gamze, 2012. "Ethnic identity and discrimination among children," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1156-1169.
- Redzo Mujcic & Paul Frijters, 2013. "Conspicuous Consumption, Conspicuous Health, and Optimal Taxation," Discussion Papers Series 483, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
- Florian Englmaier & Sebastian Strasser & Joachim Winter, 2011. "Worker Characteristics and Wage Differentials: Evidence from a Gift-Exchange Experiment," CESifo Working Paper Series 3637, CESifo Group Munich.
- Kai A. Konrad & Tim Lohse & Salmai Qari, 2013. "Dubious Versus Trustworthy Faces - What Difference Does it Make for Tax Compliance?," CESifo Working Paper Series 4373, CESifo Group Munich.
- Busetta, Giovanni & Fiorillo, Fabio & Visalli, Emanuela, 2013. "Searching for a job is a beauty contest," MPRA Paper 49392, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Voros) or (Michael P. Albert).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.